JAN-FEB, 2013

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4
Imapct Factor: -
ISSN: 2278-8808
Date: 04-Mar-2013

An International Peer Reviewed

Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies


Wanjala Martin M. S. & Mrs. Elizabeth Khaemba and Joseph Bii

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF ICTS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN KENYAN UNIVERSITIES

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 758/770

This paper argues that it is time to think differently about assessing the role of Information Communication Technologies in the implementation of distance education programs in Kenyan public universities. The first section addresses the question, "What is the place of Media/ICT in DE?" The second section examines the purpose of distance education.  This paper discusses some of the roles of information communication technologies in distance education. The contents include: a discussion of factors affecting the teacher\\\'s role, which looks at teacher education and the lack of training provided in the use of educational technology, staff development and how retraining teachers in various aspects of technology can be accomplished to enhance the implementation of distance education programs in Kenyan universities.  

Abdolhossein Mosalaeipour

THE IMPACTS OF STUDENTS’ OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AND PLACE OF BIRTH ON THEIR PREDISPOSITION TOWARDS LEARNER AUTONOMY

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 771/776

  In order to develop autonomy for the language learners, it can be rewarding to investigate those beliefs which demonstrate students’ predisposition towards learner autonomy. In doing so, a questionnaire was prepared and 168 male and female BA students majoring in English translation of one of the Islamic Azad Universities in Iran were involved in the study. They came from different occupational status and place of birth. The questionnaire was implemented to the participants. The responses of students to research questionnaire were analyzed  Based on t-test for independent samples and Analysis of Variance, it came to light that occupational status influences students’ autonomy in that those students who had occupations obtained a higher index of autonomy. In other words, the indexes of autonomy such as learner independence, learner confidence, predisposition, and positive attitude towards language learning in the employed participants were higher than the unemployed participants. The findings of the present study confirmed the ideas of Holec (1979) in which the autonomous learner, e.g., an employed learner is the governor of his learning. Moreover, autonomous learner moves away on the teacher.   
Key Words: Teacher Autonomy, Learner autonomy, Predisposition, Insightful beliefs, Detrimental beliefs      

Amjad Mahmood Hadi

SECURITY ISSUES IN OBJECTED ORIENTED DATABASE FOR DISTRIBUTED ENVIRONMENT

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 771/784

 Object oriented techniques are getting popular in these days and people are moving towards this technology, database management system is one of the largest field in business environment also today’s business environment has an increasing need for distributed database System as the desire for reliable, efficient, scalable and accessible information is steadily rising. Distributed database systems provide an improvement on communication and data processing due to its data distribution throughout different network sites. Not only is data access faster, but a single-point of failure is less likely to occur. Security becomes more complex in distributed object oriented database system; this paper discusses the selection of security issues in object oriented database for distributed environment. 
Keyword: Security Issues, Objected Oriented Database, Distributed Environment 

Fredrick M. Kalui

A STUDY ON THE EXTENT TO WHICH RISK BASED AUDIT FACTORS HAVE BEEN APPLIED IN INTERNAL AUDIT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: CASE OF SOUTH-RIFT REGION, KENYA

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 785/805

Internal Audit departments that have adopted Risk Based Audit (RBA) have been envisaged as key in achieving proper management of financial and non-financial resources in public sector. Nevertheless, not much is known on how Risk Based Audit factors have contributed towards the performance of Internal Audit departments. This study sought to establish the extent in which the listed RBA factors have been applied in Internal Audit in public sector.  The study employed a census of all the 36 district Internal Audit units in central government and 20 internal audits in local authorities in South Rift, Rift Valley province. Primary data was collected from the study respondents using structured questionnaires administered by the researcher. Data was analyzed with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer software. Descriptive statistics such as mean, median, mode and percentages were used to analyze and present the data. The study found out that Risk Based Audit factors have been moderately applied in internal audit in public sector within South Rift region. This study recommended the need to strengthen particular aspects of RBA in the internal audit in public sector and the effective application of RBA factors in order to achieve measurable improvement in the internal audit performance.    
Key Words: Internal Audit, Risk Based Audit Factors   

Phra Narong Srakaew & Anupama V. Jagtap

EFFECTIVENESS OF THE BUDDHIST MEDITATION PROGRAMME ON THE CONCENTRATION AND MEMORY OF VI STD. STUDENTS

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 806/812

Ānāpāna Meditation was taught by the Gautama Buddha, which was the first preparatory step for learning Vipassanā.  It is a simple technique where one observes the natural breath-as it is. In the Pāli language, Āna means in-coming breath, Apāna means out-going breath. The people of Thailand are not aware about the educational implication and importance of this Ānāpāna meditation. In this research study the researcher wants to focus the brightness of light over educational implication of Ānāpāna meditation. This research study is classified into Quantitative data and Qualitative data, so such type of research study comes under mixed type of research Methodology. It was found that the Buddhist Ānāpāna Meditation Programme is effective in improving the concentration and memory of the students.  2. It was found that the Buddhist Ānāpāna Meditation Programme is effective in improving the academic achievement of the students.  3. Opinions of the Students, Teachers, Parents, Director, Children Course Teachers and Dhamma Workers towards the Buddhist Meditation programme are positive and in favour of the Buddhist Ānāpāna Meditation.  Key words: Effectiveness, Buddhist Meditation Programme, Concentration, Memory    

Anita M.Belapurkar , Smita Phatak & MeghaUplane

COMPARING INCLUSIVE PRACTICES IN URBAN AND RURAL SCHOOLS IN PUNE

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 818/821

The overall goal of inclusive 
 and child friendly education is developing educational settings where all learners are welcome, participating and treated equally.      Present Research focuses on present situation of the schools regarding inclusion of differently abled students. It also gives clear-cut idea about barriers faced by teachers in implementation of strategies necessary for successful inclusion. Existing situation of physical and human resources in schools in Pune Urban and Rural has been find out using survey method. Different tools and techniques like observations questionnaires, test etc. are used. Data collected was analyzed. Urban schools have more facilities regarding human resources, than rural schools but improvement is needed as far as means of schools of both the categories is considered. Urban schools are comparatively superior in providing support for inclusion of differently abled students, but lot of efforts are still required for both the types of schools in this respect  

Dr Nil Ratan Roy

ATTITUDE TOWARDS EDUCATION OF NAMASUDRA IN ASSAM AND WEST BENGAL- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 822/830

The Namasudra is a major scheduled caste group found in Assam, West Bengal, Orissa, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh of India. This group of people are recognized as the socio-economically backward and enlisted in a schedule under scheduled caste category in our Indian constitution. Attitude of the human being has a great role in their life, which play as an internal force for all kind of development. It is found from the various study and observation that the Namasudra people living in both the states Assam and West Bengal are less conscious and having less favorable attitudes towards education in comparison to so called higher caste or general people, as a result their participation level in education is found very poor in comparison to many other communities. Again the participation level of Namasudra in Education in both the sates shows adiverse picture.The present study is an attempt to compare the development of education and to compare the attitude level of the community towards education among Namasudra in both the states. The study reveals that the Namasudra people living in West Bengal are more developed than the Namasudra in Assam. Again, the attitude level of West Bengal’s Namasudra is higher than the Assam. 
Key words: Namasudra, Attitude, Participation 

Monika Sethi, Gurmit Singh & M.L. Jaidka

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SCHEDULED CASTE AND NON-SCHEDULED CASTE ADOLESCENTS

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 831/835

The Study was intended to investigate the significance of difference in the Academic Achievement of Scheduled Caste and Non-scheduled Caste Adolescents. Sample of the study consisted of 754 (377 Scheduled Caste and 377 Non-scheduled Caste) of 10+1 students of Rural Government Schools of Punjab. Marks obtained in Science by the Adolescents in the Matriculation Examination of Punjab School Education were used as the data. The results of the study showed that Academic Achievement of Non-scheduled Caste Adolescents was significantly higher as compared to Scheduled Caste Adolescents. Key Words: Comparative Study, Academic Achievement, Scheduled Caste, Non-Scheduled Caste Adolescents  

Ravindra Kumar

VALUE EDUCATION: A GANDHIAN VIEW

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 836/839

Mahatma Gandhi’s name requires no introduction because of his invaluable contribution to the national liberation movement of India. It was he who awakening millions of people on the strength of non-violent activities, engaging them to an action, challenging the mighty empire of the world, ultimately threw the yoke of slavery. Those who believed that not a single country in the world history had achieved its freedom except by violent means, the action of Mahatma Gandhi compelled them to re-think and also to change their mentality. His reputation as a true nationalist as well as an internationalist shines like sun itself, but in the academic sense of term, he is not considered a great scholar or an educationist. We have not been enlightened by his views on education or on the problems relating to it, through any particular book written by him. Even there is no special research article available, which could have given us a glimpse of his ideas or suggestions on education system, except his occasional articles on the future of education in India written in a very simple and light manner. The same thing applies to the views he expressed on the subject now and then.  Despite this fact, the few articles that Mahatma Gandhi has written in the simplest manner, and the views he expressed on education as a common man are of utmost importance; they provide us a guide line to proceed towards value education. Not only this, if we apply them even in the modern perspective, they can, definitely, give a new dimension to our education system.    

D Hemalata Kalaimathi & R Asir Julius

PERCEIVED SUCCESS AND FLOW STATE AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS_ A SURVEY

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 840/848

Pupils anticipate success and failure of an event based on their past experience. Its a general tendency that pupils enjoy the activities only if they receive any positive reinforcements or due recognition. This study is to findout the perceived success and flow state among high school students. Perceived Success Rating Scale and Flow State Rating Scale were used to collect data. The sample consisted of 300 high school students studying  in chennai schools .  Responses were received and analyzed through SPSS 15.0. Descriptive analysis and Differential analysis were used. Results showed significantly positive relationship between Perceived success and Flow state among high school students Key words: Perceived success, Flow state  

Ummed Singh & Benny Varghese

SWOT ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL COURSES IN KERALA

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 849/856

India is in a transition from a society in which education was a privilege of a small minority to one in which it could be made available to the masses of people. The immense resources needed for the programme can be generated only if education is related to productivity. A basic distinction between traditional and modern societies is the development and use of the latter of science based technology, which helps modernization of agriculture and development of industries. The State Government has accepted the policy of vocationalization of education in the State of Kerala. The modern vocational and technical education in Kerala has root in the past. Even during the Sangam age, there was some kind of vocational and technical education, practiced in the state. As the present study is an attempt of analyses the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of vocational courses at higher secondary stage, the investigators adopts normative survey method for the present study. Qualitative analysis was employed for analysis of data obtained through documents, observation schedule and interview schedule.  Key words: swot analysis, vocational courses, kerala.   

Anil Kumar Agnihotri

ATTITUDE OF COLLEGE TEACHERS TOWARDS THE USE OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN RELATION TO DIFFERENT STREAMS

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 857/868

Education is as old as the human race.  In its broad sense, education refers to any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense education is the process by which society, through schools, colleges, universities, and other institutions, deliberately transmits its cultural heritage--its accumulated knowledge, values, and skills--from one generation to another. Education is now known as professional education with the use of Electronic Media and technology. Technology can provide inputs for all levels of education and all strata of the society including house maids, labourers, migrating groups, hawkers, and support staff. Until recently Electronic Media was clearly defined and was comprised of the eight mass media industries; Recordings, Radio, Movies, Television and the Internet. In the present study an attempt has been made to analyse the attitude of college teachers towards the use of Electronic media in their classroom teaching. It was found that both male and female teachers are agreed to use the Electronic Media in arts stream to make their teaching effective.  
Keywords: College Teachers, Electronic Media, Attitude, Streams (Science, Arts) Introduction  

Mary George Varghese

BRAIN-BASED LEARNING- A COMPATIBLE EQUATION FOR STRESS MANAGEMENT OF STUDENTS’: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 871/876

The study shows the stress involved in the secondary standard students. It states how the stress can be reduced with the help of effective learning mechanism. The study includes BrainBased Learning as teaching –learning strategy. As the neuro-psychological strategy i.e., brainbased learning follows the principles of brain functioning in the practical aspects, it care for the affective domain of the learner along with the cognitive and psycho-motor domains at individual levels. 
Key Words: Brain-Based Learning, Stress   

K. Saraladevi

COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY ON EEG AND NEUROTRANSMITTERS LEVELS AMONG THE STUDENTS HAVING HIGHER LEVELS OF TEST ANXIETY

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 877/880

The primary goal of cognitive behavior therapy is to identify and modify thoughts, feelings, and behavior that interfere with a desired outcome in life. Treatment may begin by addressing readiness issues or treatment interfering behaviors. New learning and planned steps to accomplish desired behavior change are developed with the students. Test anxiety management skills and behavioral skills are key components of treatment. With all these ideas in mind investigator had applied CBT to the sample. Primary aim of this investigation was to identify the impact of cognitive behavior therapy on Electro Encephalo Gram wave pattern of their brain and blood neurotransmitter levels of the students having higher levels of test anxiety. Higher secondary students are facing higher levels of test anxiety in INDIA, because higher secondary education is deciding their career life. Spielberger\\\'s Test anxiety questionnaire was given to the 200 higher secondary students.100 students with higher levels of test anxiety were selected and 50 students were treated as control students and 50 were treated for experimental study. Out of which 25 girls (mean age of 16.85±0.75) and 25 boys (mean age of 17.85±0.9) having higher levels of anxiety was chosen the study. Blood samples were drawn and sent to Ranbaxy laboratory for bio chemical estimation Electro Encephalo Gram recordings were done in neuro physician\\\'s clinic. Electro Encephalo Gram wave pattern, dopamine and acetylcholine levels of these students were measured before applying cognitive behavior therapy. Students were also photographed at the beginning of the experiment. These scores were recorded as pre test scores. Then the students were regularly given cognitive behavior therapy for about 6 weeks. Then their Electro Encephalo Gram wave pattern in the brain, dopamine and acetylcholine level of these students in the blood were estimated and recorded as Post Test scores. Critical Ratio, Correlation Coefficient and T test were the statistical techniques applied to analyze the pre test and post scores of the sample.  
Key Words:  Acetylcholine, Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Dopamine Electro Encephalo Gram, Test anxiety  

L. Malla & R.R. Puhan.

CODE OF ETHICS FOR SCHOOL TEACHERS: A MEANS OF FACILITATING LEARNING OF STUDENTS- A CRITICAL ANALYSIS

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 884/894

The teacher–student relationship is viewed as integral to successful teaching and learning but, outside of a few exceptions, ethical boundary issues in this relationship have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers’ perspectives of their relationships with their students as well as how they described and negotiated relationship boundaries. This case study, conducted in a B. Ed college under IP university that RCIT and in-service students of IGNOU, and designed to document examples of ethical dilemmas faced by pre-service and practicing teachers, to explore pre-service teachers’ perceptions of ethics education and to examine the B. Ed course curriculum for ethics subjects across the one-year and two year degree course. Results highlight a need for teacher training courses to include ethical philosophy units. This represents a sustainable way to support professional practice and enhance teacher quality, by preparing and equipping teachers with techniques to explore and teach complex ethical issues in the classroom and ultimately it will help the teacher to create a concussive environment within the college which is needed for best learning.  Key Words: outweighing, dreaded, perchance, transitioning, notoriety, vulnerable, myriad  

V. Raju

ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS ON INDIAN ELECTRICITY SECTOR

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 897/905

Energy is an input in an integral part of economic development. An increase demand for energy is a natural consequence of expanding economic activity. The scale of its use is closely associated with its capabilities and the quality of life that its members experience. Worldwide, great disparities are evident among nations in their level of energy use, prosperity, health, political power and demand upon the world’s resources. In present the India’s final energy demand grows faster than the development of its natural resources. To tackle the long run constraints of the present demand and supply trends, drastic changes in the management of the sector is required. India accounts for about 2.4percent of the world’s total annual energy production and for about 3.3percent of the world’s total annual energy consumption. The world wide general evident is that there is positive correlation between percapita income and percapita energy consumption. Now days, the percapita energy consumption is regarded as one of the important indices of economic development. 
   

Sankar Prasad Mohanty & Nityananda Pradhan

PERCEPTION OF STAKEHOLDERS OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION ABOUT QUALITY OF LEARNING MATERIALS OF IN-SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAMME

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 906/915

The quality of citizens of the country depends upon the quality of education. The quality of their education depends, more than any other single factor, upon the quality of their teachers. The teacher education programme is divided into pre-service and in-service teacher education. Both are important at their own place. In-service training plays a vital role in sharpening the philosophical, psychological and sociological ideologies with current innovative concepts. The RTE-SSA, being the flagship programme of Government of India, have been putting the best efforts to impart minimum 20 days in-service training to all the elementary school teachers on different subjects and themes. The state authorities have a major role to play in this regard. The stakeholders such as teachers, trainers, supervisory personnel perceive such programme in different angle. The researcher has made an attempt to study, the perception of teachers and trainers on the quality of learning material, training kit and other equipments available in the training centres. The data were collected through separate questionnaires and analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The finding revealed that the learning materials, training packages are of good quality and there was provision of such material for both teachers and trainers. Only ICT equipments were not available in the training centres. The readers can get more clarity from the present paper.  
Key words: Perception of Stakeholders, Elementary Education, Learning Materials InService Training Programme  

S.Gupta

MORALE: A SILVER LINING FOR THE BURNOUT TEACHERS TO BE IGNITED PROFESSIONALS

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 916/924

Most teachers typically begin their career with a high energy level, desirous of making their subject matter exciting to their students and demonstrating to them that they genuinely care for them as individuals. However, professional disillusionment- a type of midlife crisis – accompanied by fear, insecurity and anxiety often replaces the joy of teaching. This condition is an occupational hazard termed as ‘Burnout’. Burnout is truly an illness resulting from physical, emotional or attitudinal exhaustion. The various causes may be students’ apathy, overcrowded classroom, inadequate salaries, demanding or unsupportive parents, expanding administrative loads, negative public opinion etc. The National Education Association (NEA) attributes much of the problem of burnout to low level of morale and satisfaction  which leads to decreased teacher productivity in association with ‘a loss of concern for and detachment from the persons for whom one works and the persons with whom one works’. The solution lies in boosting morale of teachers, in raising enthusiasm and energy for work, forming an attitude of satisfaction, willingness to meet the challenging demand of this profession and a feeling of togetherness and consideration for other members of faculty and building capacity of group for the accomplishment of institutional goals as well as individual professional development. The present paper focuses on boosting’ Morale of Burnout Teachers through Administrative Support to Teachers in Educational Organizations.  
Keywords: Morale, Burnout, Efficacy  

V. Shivkumar & N K Jhota

ASKING FOR ‘SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS’ AGAINST THE CONVENTIONAL RULES: A STUDY OF WAMAN HOVAL’S SHORT STORY – THE STOREYED HOUSE

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 925/929

In the short story The Storeyed House the punishment is awarded in the form of burning down to ashes a newly built house by one ‘Mahar’ - Bayaji, a retired employee who has returned from his workplace to settle down in his own native village. He wants to build a `storeyed\\\' house with his hard earned pension money to accommodate the members of the family. The local Patil objects to his proposal because it means a threat to his authority. Out of fear Bayaji has to abandon plan partially but the middle portion is elevated a little and a small first storey fixed up there with wooden flooring’ (Poisoned Bread, p.180). This small deviation costs his life and also the newly built house. `The govt. officers, quite expectedly the biased ones, record it as an accident due to a petromax flare-up.\\\' (Poisoned Bread, p.183) But his sons are desperate enough to start constructing that very day a new house- regular two `storeyed\\\' building as a symbol of an angry protest. The focus of this paper is on the social consciousness which should rise against the conventional rules of the society so people can live comfortably and normally in their own atmosphere without having any kind of biases against each other.   
Key Words: Asking For ‘Social Consciousness’ Conventional Rules, Woman Hoval’s  Saratchandra Muktibodh, in his essay, “What is Dalit Literature?” writes: “ 

Y. Rajlakshmi Devi & Mosphy Taro

QUALITY APPROACHES OF HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA: ISSUES AND CONCERNS

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 930/935

Before independence the education system that prevailed in India was very much conservative. Affinity towards bookish knowledge, impractical thinking and monotonous approach dominated the entire process. During post-independence period while Dr Radhakrishnan gave emphasis to higher education, qualitative improvement of research and quality of teachers, Dr L S Mudaliar (1952-53) considered education at Madhyamik level to be more important. Dr D S Kothari (1964-66) was the first educationist who desired to improve quality of education from pre-primary to research stage and told about the necessity of manpower planning. New education policy of 1986 was drafted with a very broad outlook especially keeping in view the educational requirements of 21st century and highlighted equality in education, qualitative changes at all levels, women empowerment, vocationalisation of education, technological application, establishment of schools, and colleges of excellence. Unfortunately recommendations of different commissions and provisions created in education policy could not be implemented due to lack of infrastructure and the stake holder initiative despite of inadequate funding. As a result, we cross the threshold to the 21st century with about 52% literates and leaving behind the unfinished agenda for universalization of primary education and demands for qualitative improvement of secondary and higher education. National system of education tried to render its service for socio-economic upliftment in the country however there is lacuna behind this launch. Prior to this the introduction of Right to Education likely to bring forth fragile quality of elementary and secondary education that possibly weakens later stage of education. One after another Indian system of education begets unpromising policy on the verge of mercy anthem rather than to be hard-hitting curriculum. 
Key words:  Quality Approaches, Higher Education, System, India,                                                    Issues, Concerns      

Amol Kumar Gupta & Sangya Shrivastava

UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL MEDIA AND ITS IMPACT ON WORKFORCE

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 936/947

Social Media is a broadly used term for all tools and technologies that are currently widely in use for people to connect and share information online. There are various definitions of this term which has been studied in this paper. Also, social media has evolved over a period of time and its history is also studied as part of this research paper. Further, various types and classifications of social media are presented. Most importantly, the impact of social media on the modern day workforce is studied as part of this research paper.  
Keywords: Internet, Social media, Technology, Web 2.0  

Usha D. Kodgire & Maduri Waghchure

EFFECT OF YOGA EXERCISES ON SELECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES OF SCHOOL GIRLS

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 948/952

Yoga is Indigenous activity; Yoga has been accepted by human Society for its innate values towards the improvement in human health originated of India. Yoga has more impact on various physiological systems.                        The study was designed to investigate the effect of Yoga exercises on selected physiological variable of School girls. To achieve the purpose of Girls were selected from N.H. High School Nanded as subjects they were divided into two groups i.e. Control Group & Experimental Group. Control Group was not given any specific training practice. Experimental Group assigned Yoga for 12 weeks. Criterion variables were Blood pressure, Respiratory rate, Heart rate, Vo2 max. All the dependent variable were assessed before & after training period of 12 weeks. Analysis of covariance was assists to find out the post test mean difference among the treatment groups. Yoga group showed significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (CD=0.68, P<0.01), significant reduction in respiratory rate (C.D. = 0.78, P<0.01), significant reduction in pulse rate (C.D. =0.61, P<0.01) & significant improvement in vo2 max (C.D. =0.56, P<0.1).Control Group did not show any significant differences in all variables. Keywords: Yoga Exercise, Physiology    

Yash Pal Singh & Anju Agarwal

ROLE OF OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEMS IN EDUCATION AND REHABILITATION OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 962/970

Achieving the Education for All (EFA) targets and Millennium Development Goals will be impossible without improving access to and quality of education for children with disabilities. It is a binding on Indian government as well, being a signatory to UNCRPD.  MHRD (2006) in its SSA framework clearly states that “SSA will ensure that every child with special needs, irrespective of the kind, category and degree of disability, is provided education in an appropriate environment. SSA will adopt zero rejection policy so that no child is left out of the education system. It will also support a wide range of approaches, options and strategies for education of children with special needs” The advent of technology and open and distance learning could go a long way in widening accessibility to education for the majority of children and/or people with disabilities, flexibly so that the learning process can go on. These groups may be able to access materials from home, which is seen as the safest, least expensive as well as least restrictive environment. In line with these and other considerations, the present paper tries to discuss issues and strategies needed with regard to education and rehabilitation of CWSN through ODL systems. Once the support infrastructure is in place, distance learning offers a viable flexible alternative for teaching students with disabilities . Keywords:Open and Distance Learning Systems, Education, Rehabilitation, Children with Special Needs  

P.A. Ramkumar & K. Saraladevi

VISUAL IMAGERY ON STATE ANXIETY, LEARNING AND COGNITIVE STYLE AMONG HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 971/980

This study provided essential information; about the effect of visual imagery improved the learning style and cognitive style of the students. Visual imagery is reported to play a central role m stress disorder... This investigation examined visual imagery ability in students with varying degrees of state anxiety and different cognitive styles. Methods A sample comprising 100 higher secondary students were chosen for the study. Before finalizing the final form of the tools and collecting data for the main study, a pilot study was attempted by giving learning style questionnaire to 200 students. From this 50 students with visual learning style were picked up and given 4 weeks training of Visual imagery. After that their state anxiety and cognitive style scores were taken and the data were analyzed and interpreted. Conclusions: 1. There was a significant impact on state anxiety and intuitive cognitive style scores. 2. Visual learning style scores were significantly improved after the training. 3. There was a significant relationship between visual leaning style with intuitive cognitive style  Key Words:   Visual Imagery, Cognitive Style, Learning style. State anxiety  

Nishant B. Pandya

IMAGE OF INDIA IN NISSIM EZEKIEL’S SELECT POEMS

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 981/986

This research paper aims at studying Image of India reflected in the poems of Nissim Ezekiel (14 December 1924 – 9 January 2004).   I propose to study what way Nissim Ezekiel has depicted the picture of India as it is with her culture, People, system, belief, myth superstitions etc. As he prefers to live in India, his loyalty and love always remain with India. I have been very much fascinated by his genuine affection towards India and decided to explore the image of India described by him. I also wish to propose to study diction used by him in his poems. In a jovial tone the poet has deliberately used the typical Indian English, for instance swadeshi English or Babu Angrezi. The poet is also aware about the common mistake of Indian people in common English usage. How Indian people are habituated to speak in present progressive tense frequently. Myth making nature is an essential aspect of the Indian psyche and it is better described in the select poems of Ezekiel.   In this paper I have used the word image for reflection of Indianness. As peace and non-violence are essential ethos of Indian value system, Ezekiel somehow touched upon this area which also manifests his love towards India. So this study of peace and non-violence in Ezekiel’s poems, in Indian context, would also come under my research area. With the purpose of emphasizing Indianness, he chooses to depict some common Indian scenes. Conceptually Ezekiel is a writer who does not glorify the image of India but wants improvement in the existing condition to bring the “Ram Rajya” in the Nation; rather he is very hopeful about the India. He prefers to live in India. It also shows his genuine love for India.   Key Words: Nissim Ezekiel, Indianness, Babu Angrezi, Indian English, Love for India.    

Kamaljeet Singh & Rahul Pratap Singh Kaurav

RESPONSIBILITY TO MANAGE PILGRIM DESTINATION: STUDY ON HOLAMOHALLA AT SHRIANANDPUR SAHIB

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 986/990

The historic town ShriAnandpur Sahib is a city in Rupnagar district in the state of Punjab, India. It is located on the lower of the Himalayas surrounded by attractive natural scenery with the river Sutlej. Hola Mahalla is presently the biggest festival at Anandpur sahib. We personally visited the place and interviewed many tourists, pilgrims and local peoples in March 2012 during & after the festival. We found that local community and visitors of the festival face a lot of problems during this festival and after the festival. They thought something would have to happen in ShriAnandpur sahib during the Hola Mahalla festival in order to make the town more attractive and to give the best facilities to tourist, pilgrims and local peoples. That can be an issue of municipality by making it a clean city and DMOs (Destination Management Organizations) in sense of developing it as a planned city for avoiding rush, stampedes and problems faced by local community and visitors also.Next few paragraphs look into some statistics, geography and organisation of festival. Keywords: Holla-Mohallal, destination management, and marketing of destination  

Shinde J. R, & Dabhade S. V. &Mahalle P.N.

“DOUBLE GUARD: DETECTING INTRUSIONS IN MULTI-TIER WEB APPLICATIONS”

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 991/996

In today’s world there is large amount use of computer especially for web application. Most of the people do their transaction through web application.  So there are chances of personal data gets hacked then need to be provide more security for both web server and database server. For that double guard system is used. The double guard system  is used to detect  & prevent attacks using Intrusion detection system. This system prevents attacks and prevents user account from intruder from hacking his/her account. By using IDS, system can provide security for both web server and database server using mapping of request and query. An IDS system that models the network behavior of user sessions across both the front-end web server and the back-  end database. This system able to search for in a place (container) attacks that previous DoubleGuard would not be able to identify. System will try this by isolating the flow of information from each web server session. It  quantify the detection accuracy  when system attempt to model static and dynamic web requests with the back-end file system and database queries. For static websites, system built a wellcorrelated model, for effectively detecting different types of attacks. Moreover, system showed that this held true for dynamic requests where both retrieval of information and updates to the back-end database occur using the web-server front end.  Keywords – Session, Session Id, Query String, Ids  

Rajinder Kumar

USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 997/1003

Changes in the economic and social fundamentals call for transformation in the skills,  Capabilities and attitudes of the masses. This requires a shift in the delivery and pedagogy used in the current education system. The purpose of this paper is to promote integration of Information and Communication technologies (ICT) in higher education for imparting easily accessible, affordable and quality higher education leading to the economic upliftment of India. The focus of the paper is on the benefits that ICT integration in education can provide, right from breaking time and distance barriers to facilitating collaboration and knowledge sharing among geographically distributed students. The findings reveal that it also facilitates sharing of best practices and knowledge across the world. ICT increases the flexibility of delivery of education so that learners can access knowledge anytime and from anywhere. It can influence the way students are taught and how they learn as now the processes are learner driven and not by teachers. This in turn would better prepare the learners for lifelong learning as well as to contribute to the industry. It can improve the quality of learning and thus contribute to the economy. It provides several tangible and intangible benefits for all stakeholders involved in the economic growth of the country. Thus, ICT enabled education will ultimately lead to the democratization of education. Especially in developing countries like India, effective use of ICT for the purpose of education has the potential to bridge the digital divide.   
Key Words: Technology, Higher Education    

Nirmaljit Kaur

INDIAN HIGHER EDUCATION: CHALLENGES & ISSUES

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1006/1013

Globalization has redefined the constituents and drivers of economic progress over last two decades. The traditional contributors of economic development and economic power such as material resources and production capabilities have been replaced by knowledge and information. Globalization has resulted in significant changes in the knowledge economy and ushered new conditions for the provision of higher education to cater the skill requirement all across the globe. Higher educational services have emerged over the last few years as a major economic sector for trade worth several billion dollars. The key elements of globalization include the knowledge society, information and communication technologies, the market economy, trade liberalization and changes in governance structures. These elements of globalization have impacted significantly the education sector in general and higher education in particular. The present study critically analyzes the growth of higher education sector in India and identifies the major concerns. It also evaluates the preparedness of the country for the opening up its border for foreign institutions.   

Sunil Kumar Sain & Sudhir Sudam Kaware

ADVANCED EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY: A CHANGING SCENARIO OF EDUCATION

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1014/1017

In the 21st century, we have many options to do our teaching and learning in better way. Educational Technology has many dimensions of performing things as it’s require.      E-learning to Virtual learning technology create many changes in day to day teaching and learning process from school level to Higher education. Many teachers and students are going to use virtual learning technology for gaining advanced knowledge. The role of internet is also significant for all technologies like E-learning, M-learning (Smart Mobiles, Ipod etc.) V-learning etc.  Keywords: educational technology, technology based learning, e-learning, m-learning, vlearning, Self-paced   

T. Iqbal & S. Bano

PERSONALITY TRAIT AMONG SCIENCE, ARTS AND COMMERCE STUDENTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1018/1023

The investigators in the present study  has tried to make the comparison between science & commerce, science & arts and arts & commerce  undergraduate  students on personality traits at Aligarh Muslim University. The sample of the study consisted  of 600 undergraduate  students. 198 students from science stream, 264 students from atrs  stream and 138 students from commerce stream. NEO five factor inventory ( NEO-FFI; by Costa,et.al (1992) was used for  the study . t-test when applied on data revealed that  the result is not  significant at any  level of confidence  among science and commerce students. A significant difference of .01 was found between science and arts students. And a significant difference of .01 was found  between arts and commerce students.  

Bhagvan H.Chaudhari

THE IDEA OF REGION AND MENIFESTATION OF GUJARAT

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1024/1032

The term nation covers the total personality of the land, region or geographical boundaries, cultural values, ethos and existing environmental and religious frame too. Nation is constructed in myths or allegory. The issue of native language too plays the significant role in shaping the national identity. The unified form of custom, tradition, language and geography moulds the image of nation.             Nation is the unified form of various regions in Indian context. As per the language spoken, the states have received its regional identity. Regional languages too, have number of dialects spoken among sub-regions. It is argued that the concepts ‘region’ and ‘nation’ are not given but are only constructed through a skilful choice of issues in history. Region has its ‘distinctive personality’ and the sources of such personality are the ecology and the nature of its earth, the folk life flourished through its natural factors and the history and its traditions.            Present-day Gujarat is considered one of the leading states of India in all its walks. The existing state of Gujarat is the result of Mahagujarat Movement. K.M. Munshi identifies the region of Gujarat as framed according to the perception of the trio: Siddharaj, Hemchandracharya and Mahatma Gandhi. It cannot be mere region, group of people or cultured person but also a life- feeling earned through humble effort by collective will-power from generation to generation. The realization to that sense is called Asmita of Gujarat. Narmad sang not only the geographical status but the true spirit of the land of Gujarat: ‘Jay Jay Garvi Gujarat’.   Since 1930 Gujarat has remained the active force in enriching the image of true India. The concept of ‘Gujaratiness’ favours the idea nationalism.                        Some of the Gujarati novelists have attempted their hand to represent the concept of regional identity which merges within the soul of state: e.g. Meghani’s Sorath, Pannalal Patel’s Ishan region. The integrated form of such regions defines the true image of the Gujarat region. The regional novelists have offered a chronicle related to the region. In context to region, they focus the issue like native, cultural identity of the people correspondingly. Sometimes, mere the naming of the region governs the all incidents according to nature of regional impressions.  
KeyWords:nation,region, asmita, regionality, Gujarat, Gujaratiness, Sorath and Ishan regions,cultural identity  

R. Pranesh Kumar

CLASSROOM CHALLENGES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1033/1038

This paper presents a review of recent trends, challenges and also the practice of English Language Teaching in India. It explores the current practices in an English Language Learning classroom and also the behavior of students in the classroom. The necessity of motivation in the process of learning a second language and also the benefits of a student centered classroom is being briefly brought out. While in the classroom peer group interaction and communication with the teacher in the target language provides opportunities for natural language use. The paper further discusses some of the key issues related to English Language Learning and Teaching. It reflects on how the teaching of English Language is in practice with prime focus on the benefits of a stress free atmosphere to enhance Language Learning.  

Mendhekar Dattatrya Parshuram

EXTENSIONAL AND INTENSIONAL USE OF LANGUAGE MEANS COMMUNICATION

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1039/1040

We must always remember that communication is a willingness to listen, an honest attempt to put oneself in another’s place in an effort to understand him. It is a habit of looking to the advantages, benefits, and possible effects of proposals before arriving at judgments on their merits. It is also a deep interest in talking with people rather than at or to them. It is a feeling for and an understanding of the dignity of each person as an individual, and a concern for his welfare, Hence, a prime pre-requisite to communication between man and man is an emphasis on humaneness. That emphasis is still very much alive among college students and hence our hope to work with man to solve his problems lies in communication.   
Keywords: extensional, intentional, language, communication.  

Shazli Hasan Khan

ROLE OF VIRTUAL UNIVERSITIES IN THE SCHEME OF FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF DISTANCE EDUCATION AND DELIVERY OF OPEN DISTANCE LEARNING RESOURCES: POSSIBILITIES AND ISSUES

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1041/1048

In today’s fast paced, rapidly developing and changing global scenario of education, there has been a phenomenal interest in the growth of what some are calling as ‘Digital’, ‘Online’ or ‘Virtual Universities’. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have now radically reconfigured the landscape of higher education, especially, Open Distance Learning, and the very ‘nature’ of the existing universities. The emergence of online courses and of Open Course Wares (OCWs) has decreased the importance of formal campus education. In recent years, there has been a phenomenal increase in enrolment of students in higher education sector, due to which the existing facilities of higher education are not enough to accommodate them. Therefore, an ardent and urgent need is now being felt by the teaching learning community of making use of Virtual Leaning Environments (VLEs). The students instead of enrolling into regular courses are preferring to ‘login’ from a distance so as to get access the ‘course-ware’ of their interest and other related educational programmes of their academic interest. At global level, there is a PAN Network which is ‘P’ African Network of 47 countries in which around 10,000 students in these 47 countries are getting their degrees through this Network via online courses and virtual education mechanism. Virtual education is now being depicted as solution to the increasingly demanding problems of higher education.   
Key words: Higher Education, Open Resource Course Ware, ICTs, Virtual University, Virtual                      classroom  

Paresh D. Gauswami & Nishant B.Pandya

MANIFESTATION OF CULTURE OF CONFLICT IN CHETAN BHAGAT’S 2 STATES

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1049/1057

In the contemporary time, the society witness many hazardous problems generated due to the cultural conflicts. Today, abundant of incidents where one can find that battles are fought due to the difference of cultural aspects. The hullaballoo between American and Islamic countries is one of them. In India, the same problems are seen between Islam and Jainism. These problems of cultural dissimilarity play an obvious role in some country like American, UK, Australia and India due to thousand of the migrants residing there.  Here with, through the research, the issue of cultural variation, and how this variation wound human lives, is probed. Apartfrom this, the exploration also confirms, how with liberal values of Culture of Convenience, the problems of cultural divergence can be resolved. This research also draws an attention that, how the moderate quality of culture of convenience brings the global harmony. With special reference to very popular Indian English novel, 2 States by Chetan Bhagat.  
Key Words: Culture, Conflict, Novel, Chetan Bhagat  

Er. Sanjeev Puri

IMPORTANCE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TOOLS

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1058/1067

This paper,” Importance of Artificial Intelligence Tools” helps us in understanding the real concept of artificial intelligence and the importance of artificial intelligence tools. It gives the awareness of how artificial intelligence (AI) plays an important role in our daily life especially in the case of medicine. This system is working throughout the world as an artificial brain.  In this paper information regarding the tools of AI and it solves the current problems in the field of medicine.  There seems to be many pitfalls in the field of medicine which can’t be resolved b any other means other than AI.  Thus further improvement in the field of AI will be a boon for the development of scientific technology and to researchers, if done as it has to be. There seems to be many cons in the current trend which can be easily solved.  Thus one of the applications of computer science being artificial intelligence solves all these problems and helps in accessing individual patient risk. Key Words: Artificial intelligence, reasoning, tools, robot, cardiovascular disease, medicine.     

Mohammad Naeemullah

PARALLEL COMPUTING IMPLEMENTATION USING GPU

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1068/1078

A few years, the programmable graphics processor unit has evolved into an absolute High performance computing. Simple data-parallel constructs, enabling the use of the GPU as a streaming coprocessor. A compiler and runtime system that abstracts and virtualizes many aspects of graphics hardware. 
Commodity graphics hardware has rapidly evolved from being a fixed-function pipeline into having programmable vertex and fragment processors. While this new programmability was introduced for real-time shading, it has been observed that these processors feature instruction sets general enough to perform computation beyond the domain of rendering. 
Proposed research work is a translation of share memory program to graphics processing unit for regular loop and irregular loop in parallelism. The theme of this translation is to make the efficiency to reduce the execution time for the huge amount of data processing for such an application. An analysis of the effectiveness of the Graphics Processing Unit as a computing device compared to the Central processing Unit, to determine when the GPU can produce outstanding result rather than the CPU for a particular algorithm for Application. To achieve good performance, our translation scheme includes efficient management of shared data as well as advanced handling of irregular accesses. 
Key Words: Parallel Computing,  Implementation, GPU.   

Nithiya Amirtham S. & K. Saraladevi

EEG BRAIN MAPPING OF DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA- A CASE STUDY REPORT

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1078/1087

Developmental dyslexia is a specific and significant impairment in reading abilities which is unexplainable by any kind of deficit in general intelligence, learning opportunity and general motivation or sensory acuity. The main objective of the study was to measure the absolute powers of beta, alpha, theta and delta of the dyslexic case with the help of the intervention programme on relaxation techniques. The experimental sample for the present study was a single dyslexic case and control group for comparison with quasi experimental approach .Brain waves of the control samples including the experimental case were recorded for pre test using Electro Encephalogram (EEG) and relaxation therapy was given for the experimental case alone and post test was recorded. Statistical analyses were done on the different brain waves. It was found that increase in absolute powers of Alpha and decrease in Beta brain waves in dyslexic case was due to relaxation techniques because of the internal mental operations and thereby relaxed and alert condition of the case was increased. Then decreasing absolute powers of theta and delta brain waves were mainly due to the changes in cognitive processing during relaxation. 
Keywords: Brain Waves, Developmental Dyslexia, EEG, Relaxation Techniques 
 

Altaf A. Langda & Hiren Joshi

A STUDY ON MOBILE DEVICES COMPATIBILITY ISSUES FOR WEB SERVICES AND EFFORTS AIMED AT IMPROVING INTEROPERABILITY

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1088/1095

Web service is a software system designed to support interoperable machine to machine interaction over a network. Presently, a number of issues are associated with rendering web services correctly on mobile devices like variable size and resolutions, slow speed over network, lack of standard GUI controls etc. In this paper, I study various efforts undertaken by various organizations like W3C and some group formed as vendor associations to make browsing the web with mobile devices more reliable by setting standards and creating domains that web site designers can use to make their sites mobile-friendly. 
Key Words: mobile web,  web service, compatibility issues, improve interoperability,  Solution efforts, design principles.    

Seema K. Bhandare

STRUCTURE TO RESEARCH PEDAGOGY IS A COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE PACKAGE FOR A MATHEMATICS TEACHER

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1096/1105

Present paper focuses on Structure to research pedagogy for mathematics teacher. This pedagogy gives knowledge about structure of mathematics subject, levels of objectives, curriculum, syllabus, textbook, analysis of one unit of mathematics, find the place value of units in structure, its connection with other units, know the different ways of teaching, how to have a proper blending of method and content using different methods for same content and changing the scope and difficulty level of content keeping the method of teaching same. This pedagogy can develop metacognitive skills and research attitude of mathematics teacher and can lead the teacher towards need based teaching. 21st century demands teachers who have knowledge about different ways of teaching and research attitude to fulfil the learning wants of students having different capacities. 
Key Words: Pedagogy, Knowledge Package 

Bhalchandra Bhave

COMPUTER POLLUTION: A GLOBAL TURBULENCES TO THE ENVIRONMENT

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1106/1116

Man is an integral ingredient of Physical and Biological World in which he lives. In a broader sense, we may define this physical and biological world as \\\'environment\\\' which consists of biotic (Living) and abiotic (non-living) components. All the physical and biological aspects of human survival involve some king of interaction with his environment. The objectives of these paper are to study the concept of global turbulence, 2) To study the present status of Global Environment, 3) To study how computer becoming growing course of Global pollution. Qualitative  analysis method was used for the present study, The data collected through the secondary resources like Books, Journals, Magazines, Websites. The problems of Global environment is desertification biodiversity population explosion, Global warming & Urban pollution. The most important thing is computer pollution is a growing cause of global pollution. Keywords :Desertification, Global warming, Urban pollution, Computer pollution, pollutants in computer  

Satvinderpal Kaur

UNIVERSALIZATION OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACT (2009): ASSESSMENT OF ISSUES AND CONCERNS

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1117/1125

Ensuring formal education to all children has been an area of lively debate in the world. Time to time various policies and programmes have been launched by the state to ensure universalization of education.Article 45 under the Indian Constitution stated that the state shall endeavor to provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. But, the State failed miserably in fulfilling this obligation as is evident from the fact that even after 66 years, universal elementary education is a distant dream. In the year 2009, a law to facilitate the realization of the fundamental right to education was passed by the Parliament by way of the right to free and compulsory education act (RTE). The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE 2009), is an Indian legislation enacted by the Parliament of India on August 4, 2009, which describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6 to14 years under Article 21a of the Indian Constitution.The Act envisaged quality, accountability and accessibility of education for each and every child of the nation. Transformation of the dream of universalization of education depends upon the successful achievement of the goals advocated by RTE Act. There are many fundamental issues and challenges standing before the successful implementation and progress of the right to education act. The present paper evidently discusses the issues and concerns related to universalization of elementary education.
 

Navleen Kaur & Divya Gill

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN : A CASE STUDY OF PANCHKULA CITY (HARYANA)

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1126/1155

Women and men are created by the same creator. Their rights and duties are equally divided
by him. Gradually, man started taking advantage of his strong physical power. As a result the
position of women was reduced to the mercy of men due to imposition of unreasonable
restrictions upon women. With the progress of civilization, people started realizing this fact
and law came to the rescue of women. In India also, traditional custom and usage were
declared unconstitutional but there is still a need for improvement. At present, men are still under the impression that their position is very strong in the society. Women’s struggle for
equality in the society is backed by people with the right kind of thinking in the society. This
study confirms the high prevalence of all forms of violence against women across all socio
economic settings of India. However, urban residence, older age, lower education and lower
family income are somewhat associated with occurrence of domestic violence. Women are at
risk of violence from the husband/partner than any other type of perpetrator. Keeping in view
these considerations and reasons the present research project has been taken up.
 

J. R. Sonwane

VIRTUAL CLASSROOM AND VIRTUAL CLASSROOM MODULES

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1156/1161

It is generally said that learning is the lifelong process of transforming information and experience into knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes etc. According to the definition of learning technology and especially electronic technology can help a lot in the teaching learning process. E- learning, in which, new technological innovation and smart classroom/virtual classroom can support a lot. A virtual classroom is an online learning environment, which can be web-based and accessed through a portal or software-based and require a downloadable executable file. This paper discusses the concept of virtual classroom and principles of virtual classroom modules.   
Keywords: Virtual classroom, Module  

M.S.Rohokale & D.R .Pangavane

CRASH ENERGY MANAGEMENT FOR OCCUPANT PROTECTION DURING VEHICLE CRASHES

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1162/1170

Since design for crash energy management requires a system approach, severalmodels would be constructed in parallel to investigate synergy, if any, betweenthe major modes of frontal collisions, namely: 31 mph frontal, 35 mph frontal, and40 mph offset frontal impacts. At this stage, the desired crush sequence andmode will need to be selected and crush zones identified to assure that thestructural pulse parameter can be realized, that is, the force amplitude and themaximum crush distance, as determined in occupant model studies. Also, at thisstage in the design process, parametric studies are conducted in conjunctionwith other parallel design studies, such as packaging and vehicle dynamics toexplore various design alternatives. Keywords: Crash energy management, Crush zones, Occupant model, etc.  

P.R. Kolhe, R.M.Dharaskar, M.H .Tharkar & S. Joshi

DIGITAL LIBRARIES AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1170/1174

 

Navleen Kaur & Priyanka Chandra

CHILD LABOUR: EXPLORATION OF A VULNERABLE ENCAMPMENT IN CHANDIGARH

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1175/1186

 Child Labour is the pattern of engaging children in economic activity for part time or full time basis. This robs children of their childhood. It is detrimental to their physical and mental development. Children in every society have always participated in the economic activities. They have been assisting their families at home, in farms and shops, etc. All work is not bad for children. Some activities do make a positive contribution to their development, prepares them for their future tasks and help them to pass on the traditional skills from one generation to another. Therefore, there is a difference between child work and child labour. The reasons giving birth to child labour are poverty, illiteracy, scarcity of schools, ignorance, socially regressive practices, blind customs and traditions, migrations, corruption amongst employees and government labour organization.  The present study is an attempt to know the reasons of child labour in a modern city like Chandigarh, which is also an education hub in the upper north region of India

Kulvinder Singh

MONEY LAUNDERING: AN ECONOMIC CRIME AND ITS IMPACT

Sep-Oct,2013, Vol - 1/4, Page - 1187/1199

Money laundering constitutes a serious threat to national economies and respective governments. The infiltration and sometimes saturation of dirty money into legitimate financial sectors and nations accounts can threaten economic and political stability. Economic crimes have a devastating effect on a national economy since potential victims of such crimes are far more numerous than those in other forms of crime. Economic crimes also have the potential of adversely affecting people who do not prima-facie, seem to be the victims of the crime. This paper provides a brief overview of the concept of money laundering and its impact.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Keywords: Money Laundering, Global Economy, Economic Crime, Terrorism, Hawala