An International Peer Reviewed
Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies
Development of Emotional QuotientThe following report explores the role of parents in recently developed term Emotional Quotient (E. Q.), Education is a powerful instrument of social change and economic change; it is related to the long- term National development. Education also plays a crucial and important role in development of children. Before thinking the problem in mind we have to must think over the children’s behavior. Why children’s or students behave in a particular way? Why did they behave in this manner? What is the reason behind their failure or success? The answer for this problem is too. Which with Emotional Intelligence (E. I.) was introduced by Daniel Golman E. Q. is the long way process of development in child’s and adolescence. It plays far more vital role in carrier success of Childs than I. Q. In this content which factors are responsible to decline one’s E. Q. How it affects on academic achievements of students. In this compilation, how parents may play a vital role to incline their child’s/ E. Q is discussed.The paper further tried to make clarify the difference between E. I. versus E. Q., Followed by emotional quotient development programme.Key words: Development, Emotional Quotient
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Daniel Goleman (1995). Emotional intelligence. Bantan books: New York. Kapoor Maluika (1997). Mental health in Indian School. Sage publication: New Delhi. Mangal S. K. (2006), Advanced Educational psychology, Princntice Hall: New Delhi.
Education in Creating India a Knowledge Based Society
Knowledge enables an individual to think, to analyze and to understand the existing situation, and the inter-linkages and externalizations of each action. It empowers an individual to form his or her own opinion, to act and transform conditions to lead to a better quality of life. Knowledge societies are generally characterized with the ability to create, share upon the general well-being of the people as well as making it possible for them to prosper. The knowledge-based society can offer tremendous potential for reducing social exclusion, both by creating the economic conditions for greater prosperity through higher levels of growth and employment. The Indian education system improvement is required at many levels– from primary schools to higher education and research institutions of national excellence. At all levels, there is a need to improve both access and excellence. Research in the field of the human social sciences plays a fundamental role in understanding and managing the many ways in which society is currently changing. The increasing extent of services in the pace of technological changes, the advanced level of information and knowledge, as well as the size of the industrial and social re-organizations, all give good arguments in favor of the knowledge based society. ICT is used to ensure rapid, cost effective and reliable communication, networking and access to and publication of information which, in turn, is used to enhance productivity, education and development. In a society of the future, education will play an essential role in creating the new way of life specific to knowledge and learning based society. In order to create a world class knowledge society, every one of us has to be knowledge worker. This paper describes the importance of creating a knowledge based society for making India a powerful country.
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*** (2012). http://www.slideshare.net/Downes/toward-a-new-knowledge-society. Blinder, AS (2000), The Internet and the New Economy, http://www.internetpolicy.org/briefing/1_00.html Dixit, Kunda. "Does Information Technology Promote Knowledge". Retrieved from http://www.twnside.org.sg/souths/twn/title/1900-cn.htm Government of Ireland (2006), Strategy for Science Technology and Innovation 2006-2013. The Stationary Office, Dublin. Available at: http://www.entemp.ie/publications/science/2006/sciencestrategy.pdf. International Telecommunication Union (2009), Measuring the Information Society -The ICT development index. Retrieved from http://www.itu.int/ITUD/ict/publications/idi/2009/material/IDI2009_w5.pdf New Knowledge Commission (2009), “Report to the Nation, 2006-2009”, Government of India. Pohjola M (Ed.), (2000), Information Technology, Productivity, and Economic Growth. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Spence, M (2008), The Growth Report: Strategies for Sustained Growth and Inclusive Development. Commission on growth and development. Retrieved September 24, 2008, from http://cgd.s3.amazonaws.com/GrowthReportComplete.pdf: Stehr, N. (1994b) : Knowledge Societies. London. UNESCO (2005), Towards Knowledge Societies: UNESCO world report. www.knowldgecommission.gov.in
Literate Society: Need of Time
Ref.Education leads to expected change in human beings. Though education comprises non formal and informal streams, there is a general conception that education lies in formal stream. The meaning of literacy changes place to place & time to time. It should be continued. Otherwise there is a fear that re-lapsation of it will lead to illiteracy again. In the current scenario of globalization many more aspects are needed to be studied by a person; at least fundamentals of many things should be known to persons. The institutions providing no formal education can fulfill this requirement. In this case literacy (not mere alphabetical) can be described as imparting & acquiring fundamental aspects in particular area. After independence, we tried to make our nation self-sufficient. Time has come to make individuals self-sufficient. For that, there is a need to make each individual literate. It can lead to Literate Society.
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‘Broader and complementary definitions’, available at: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literacy (accessed 20/10/2011). ‘Literacy’, available at: ibid (accessed 20/10/2011). ‘Literacy in India’, available at: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literacy_in_India (accessed 20/10/2011). Urser Danney. www.angelfire.com/folk/mpv (accessed 20/10/2011). Phule, Mahatma Jotirao (1883), Shetkaryacha Asud (original Marathi Book) translated by Asha Mundlay ( cultivator’s whipcord) in collected works of Mahatma Jotirao Phule, Vol.3. Mahatma Jotirao Phule Source Material publication committee, Govt. of Maharashtra, Editor – Hari Narke (2002). Lokhande, Dhananjay (1998), Samajkrantiche Agradoot : Gadgebaba, University of Pune Publication, Pune, P.7.
A Study of Students’ Perception and Quality in M. Ed. Course of S. N. D. T. Women’s University Pune Campus, Pune.Today’s age is known as age of quality. Each and every sector wants quality it’s their products and services. In education also, quality is a buzzard from primary to higher level education. In the globalization, ‘survival is the fittest’ is a mantra of the world. In India, out of 200 universities in the world, only two universities are ranked. That means the quality of higher education is very poor. For the improvement of higher education, monitoring of the quality of education is essential. In the present study the researcher have attempted to know the quality of M. Ed. course conducted by the S.N.D.T. Women’s University Pune Campus. The statement of the problem is to study of students’ perception of quality in M. Ed course of S.N.D.T. Women’s University Pune Campus Pune. Research method includes ‘Survey method’ was used to find out students’ perception of quality in M.Ed. Course. The tools prepared for the data collection are consists of ‘Questionnaire’ was used to find out students’ perception of quality in M.Ed. Course of S.N.D.T. Women’s University Pune Campus Pune. The questions were based on various parameters of the NACC.Key words: Perception, Quality, in M. Ed. Course, S. N. D. T. Women’s University.
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Effectiveness of Human Rights Education Awareness ProgrammeThe focus of this study is to create the awareness of Human Rights education and to find out the effectiveness of Human Rights education awareness programme and to find out the opinions about developed Human Rights education awareness programme for 8th and 9th std students. Experimental research methodology has been used for this study and single group design has been used for the research study. Forty for 8th and 9th std students are selected from entire population by incidental sampling method. The awareness test i.e. pre-test and post-test tools and questionnaire are used for collection of data. To find out the effectiveness and awareness of Human Rights education programme the hypotheses are formulated. H-0: There is no Significant difference between means score of experimental group and control group taught by Human Rights education awareness programme. H0: 1 No difference existing between observed frequencies and expected frequencies. The findings of the study are developed Human Rights education awareness programme enhances the Human Rights Knowledge and information among the 8th and 9th std students and opinions of students are positive towards the developed Human Rights education programme.Key words: Effectiveness, Human rights education programme
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Total Quality Management in Higher EducationTQM in higher education has now become the major concern of education in the 21st century. TQM can help a school or college provide better service to its primary customers-students and employer’s .The continuous improvement focus of TQM is a fundamental way of fulfilling the accountability requirements common to education reform. The quality of education is judged by kind of humans it produces, and takes quality as a holistic concept. The two hidden dimensions of TQM are total quality and quality management. Here the basic tents of TQM have been minutely examined by expressing views of Deming, Crosby Juran, Saylor, Yudof and Busch vishnian etc .who did pioneering work in establishing the significance of TQMKey Words: TQM, Higher Education
AIDS EDUCATIONC IN SCHOOLS: AN OPINION OF MOTHERS’ AND TEACHERSThe most common place for people to learn about HIV and AIDS is at school. Due to their capacity and universality, schools are a crucial setting for educating young people about AIDS. As young people are at a high risk of becoming infected with HIV, it is vital that they are educated about HIV transmission before they are exposed to situations that put them a risk of HIV infection (e.g. before they are sexually active). Schools play a major role in shaping the attitudes, opinions and behaviors of young people and so are ideal environments for teaching the social as well as the biological aspects of HIV and AIDS. The present study is an attempt to find the opinion of mothers’ and teachers’ about the implementation of AIDS Education at school. For this 100 mothers and 100 teachers were taken and compare their opinions. Both have the opinion that AIDS education is very important at school level. Present study is valuable for teachers and parents so that they aware their children about this disease at right age and time in schools as well as at homes.Key Words: AIDS education, opinion.
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USE OF LOW COST-NO COST TEACHING MATERIAL BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN TEACHING OF SCIENCEThe present study is designed to investigate use of low cost-no cast teaching material by elementary school teachers in teaching of science. The descriptive survey method was used in the study. The study was delimited to the elementary schools of Moga District of Punjab. In order to conduct the study, 50 government elementary schools were selected randomly from Moga district of Punjab. The data was collected from the 100 science teachers of the schools. A self constructed check list was used to collect the data. Average, percentage was used for data analysis. The main findings show that 53% of elementary schools have availability of low cost/ no cost teaching material and 47% of elementary schools do not have low cost/ no cost teaching material, 47% teachers involve themselves in preparation of low cost/ no cost teaching material, whereas 53% of teachers do not involve themselves in preparation of low cost/ no cost teaching material, 49% of elementary school science teachers use low cost/ no cost teaching material, whereas 51% of elementary school science teachers do not use low cost no cost teaching material in teaching of science and It was founded 88% of science teachers believed that low cost/ no cost teaching material is helpful in changing behavior of students, whereas 12% of science teachers think that low cost/ no cost teaching material is not helpful in bringing change in students’ behavior. Keyword:Low Cost, No Cost, Teaching Material, Elementary School, Science
India Wait Multi National Universities for the Development of Qualitative Higher EducationQuality is an important issue in Higher Education. Despite a vast network, the institutions that are in focus on the world or nation ranking are very few. There is an apprehension that Indian HEIs cannot produce ‘world class’ institution to compete in present day context. While many universities in India provide general as well as professional education, there are some universities which exclusively provide professional education, and some exclusively general. No plan for the future development of the country can be deemed to be complete which does not provide for quality education. So Government of India decides to introduce Foreign Education Instructional Bill for the development of qualitative Higher Education. The proposed Bill mentioned that FEIs are going to enjoy complete freedom to set curriculum, charge fee whatever they feel appropriate and the Reservation Quota law will not be applicable to Foreign Universities setting up campus. Many educationalist and political parties criticize this bill to provide complete freedom to the foreign universities. But If we go by the history of globalization in India we see that a section of people and political parties were against the entrance of Multi National Companies in India. Some people also had the view that the MNC\'s will take over Indian companies and will rule Indian markets. When we see the results today it is altogether different.Keywords: Multinational Universities, Qualitative, Higher Education.
Level of Academic Achievement in Hindi among Class IV Students in Four Districts of Himachal PradeshUniversalization of Elementary Education (UEE) has been accepted as a national goal in India since Independence. The founding fathers of Indian Constitution recognized UEE as a crucial input for nation building. In this context, about 60 years ago, Article 45 of the Indian Constitution (1950) stated that: The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. When the target could not be achieved till 2001, Indian Government started its flagship programme named as `The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ in 2001. It was, therefore, thought worthwhile to undertake the present piece of research with an objective to evaluate the `National Program of Universal Elementary Education’ known as Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) launched in 2001 in Himachal Pradesh with respect to quality improvement at elementary Stage.Keywords: Evaluation, Academic Achievement, Hindi, National Policy, Education for All
Relationship between Currency Depreciation and Output Growth in Pakistan -A Time Series StudyGenerally it is believed currency depreciation of a country has a positive that is expansionary impact on its output and aggregate demand. Since devaluation lowers the export prices and raises the prices of import and this leads to an improvement in the foreign sector of the economy. The improvement in the foreign sector raises output and employment in the overall economy. Thus currency devaluation or depreciation has a positive effect on its output. On the other hand it is also found that currency depreciation may not necessarily increase the level of output especially in a less developed economy. Since Exchange rate depreciation raises the cost of imported inputs, leading to a decrease in aggregate supply. Under these circumstances in this paper investigates the effects of currency depreciation on the growth of output of the economy of Pakistan for the time period 1993 to 2009. This study finds Currency depreciation has expansionary effect on output growth in the short run but in the long run currency depreciation is contractionary on output growth in the economy of Pakistan.Key Words: Currency Depreciation, Real Effective Exchange Rate, Output Growth, Pakistan
Effectiveness of Android Mobile Technology in Teaching ScienceThere is enormous increase in the impact of mobile on daily life of human.Today is a age of ICT. Due to the widespread of ICT change both teaching &learning. The main objectives of present study were 1) To check the opinion ofstudents towards Android Mobile Technology 2) To study the effectiveness of AndroidMobile Technology in Teaching Science. Experimental study was followed to checkthe effectiveness of Android Mobile Technology. Study was used the both qualitative& quantitative analysis. The target of population of this research was B.Ed. studentsthe nature of the study how ever required that the training college & students waspurposively selected. Researcher used equivalent group post test design. For datacollection researcher used student opinionarry about mobile technology & post test.Following null hypotheses were formulated. There is no significant difference ineffectiveness of Android mobile technology on the students achievement of sciencecontent. The finding of first objectives shows that Android technology is one of theinnovative pedagogies to be adopted in the classroom instruction in order to deliverthe important information in a structured & organized way so that will fill happy &learn with happiness. Android mobile technology offers joyful learning which is needof the hours. The finding of second objectives shows that result of analysis are statedthat there is significant impact of Android mobile technology on students achievement.Hence null hypothesis is rejected.Keywords : Android, 3G Multimedia, Content storage technology, content transfertechnology.
Attewell, J. & Savill-Smith, C. (2003). Mobile Learning and Social Inclusion : Focusing on learners and Learning. 2. Hayes, P., Joyce. D & Pathak P. (2004). Ubiquitous learning an application of mobile technology in education. In Cantoni & McLaughlin (eds). Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2004. Lugano, Switzerland. 3. Mangal, S.K. (2012). Statistics in Psychology & Education, New Delhi, Phi learning ltd. 4. Mithuchanmy & K. Thiyages, (2011) 3G Mobile Technology in Education, Association of Indian University, New Delhi.
Role of Foreign direct investment (FDI) and foreign institutional investors (FII) in IndiaA) FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI)Net foreign direct investment (FDI) flows into India reached 123,378 crore in the year 2010-11, itmeans increase of 147% of the 18486 crore recorded during 2000-01, with the largest share of FDIflows from Mauritius, followed by the United States and the United Kingdom. This paper examinesFDI in India, in the context of the Indian economic and regulatory environment. This paper presentFDI trends in India, by country and by sectors during the post liberalization period that is 2000 to2010 year, using official government data from Indian official government internet site like that ofRBI, SEBI. To illustrate the driving forces behind these trends, the study also discusses theinvestment climate in India, Indian government incentives to foreign investors, the Indian regulatoryenvironment as it affects investment, and the effect of India’s global, regional, and bilateral tradeagreements on investment from top 10 FDI investing countries. Finally, the study examines globalFDI in India’s in top 10 sectors of industry.B) FOREIGN INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS (FII)Institutional Investor is any investor or investment fund that is from or registered in a countryoutside of the one in which it is currently investing. Institutional investors include hedge funds,insurance companies, pension funds and mutual funds. The growing Indian market had attracted theforeign investors, which are called Foreign Institutional Investors (FII) to Indian equity market, andthis paper present try to explain the impact and extent of foreign institutional investors in Indianstock market and examining whether market movement can be explained by these investors. It isoften hear that whenever there is a rise in market, it is explained that it is due to foreign investors\'money and a decline in market is termed as withdrawal of money from FIIs. This paper tries toexamine the influence of FII on movement of Indian stock exchange during the post liberalizationperiod that is 2000 to 2010.
A REVIEW ON VEHICLE CRASHWORTHINESS AND OCCUPANT PROTECTION MECHANISMSAutomotive Industry demands the robustness of the designed vehicle which suits the needs orexpectations of the potential customers. Characteristicssuch as costs, design appeal, cabincomfort, infotainment functionality, agility,passive safety, theft deterrence, reliability orsustainability are the main factors inthe purchasing decision. Instead of vehicle engines powerand torque, the customer cares about vehicles acceleration, maximum speed, wind noise and theenergy costs. Nowadays, transportation safety efforts focus on crashworthiness, crashavoidance,driver performance, and highway construction. Over the past decade automakershaveadded many features to help the driver avoid a crash, such as anti-lockbraking systems, tractioncontrol devices and daytime running lamps. Vehiclesalso include many crashworthiness featuressuch as rigid steel occupant-cellssurrounded by strategically placed, energy absorbingcomponents.In addition,vehicles are equipped with an impressive array of restraint systems suchasenergy-absorbing steering columns, three-point belts, front and side air bags andheadrestraints to reduce the risk of injury.Keywords: Vehicle Crashworthiness, transportation safety, Automotive Industry, etc
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ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE IN RELATION TO EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE OF PRINCIPALS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Ref.The present study attempts to study the effect of Emotional intelligence of Principals on Organizational Climate of secondary schools. The sample consisted of 20 schools with male and 20 schools with female principals from government and private schools of Hoshiarpur and Jalandhar district. Out of selected schools, 20 teachers were taken from each school and investigation was carried out on 480 teachers to whom Organizational Climate questionnaire was administered. The obtained data was analyzed with the help of 2x2 analysis of variance. Teachers headed by female principals experienced more disengagement and alienation than the institution headed by the male principals. Teachers headed by highly emotionally intelligent principals experienced more disengagement, esprit, controls, humanized thrust than the institution headed by the low emotionally intelligent principals. Teachers working in schools with female principals having high emotional intelligence showed more alienation than the teachers working in schools with male principals having high emotional intelligence. Teachers working in schools with female principals having low emotional intelligence showed more alienation than teachers working in schools with male principals having high emotional intelligence.Key words: Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Climate
Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems. Barth, R. (2000). Improving schools from within: Teachers, parents and principals can make a difference. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Brown, B.L. (1999). Emotional Intelligence: Keeping Your Job. Trends and Issues, Alert No. 9. (ERIC Reproduction Service No. ED 435041). Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (2004). The emotionally intelligent manager. How to develop and use the four key emotional skills of leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-bass. Chakraborti, M. (1990). A study of the organizational climate of secondary schools in West Bengal and its correlation with other relevant variables. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Calcutta. Reproduced from Fifth Survey of Educational Research, Vol. II, NCERT, New Delhi.
HUMAYUN’S STRUGGLE WITH THE RISING POWERS OF NORTHERN INDIAThis paper epitomises the struggle and the defeat of Humayun by the rising powers of India. The empire whose foundation was so arduously laid by Babur was nevertheless precarious and unstable in character. As soon as Humayun ascended the throne, he found himself surrounded by the difficulties on all sides in many ways. Babur had of course, defeated the Indian powers like the Rajputs, the Afghans etc., but he could not completely crush them. Babur could not do anything more than this short period of four years. In fact, the roots of Mughal dynasty had not yet gone deep into the Indian soil and were then, of course in firm. Muhammad Lodhi, Ibharim Lodhi‟s brother, had regained power in Bihar and eastern provinces after his defeat in the Battle of Gogra. Another Afghan Sardar Sher Khan had also consolidated his position considerably. Of the Afghan Sardars he was the most capable and intelligent leader, who was engaged day and night in consolidating and organising all the scattered Afghan power. On the other side, Bhadur Shah who was a very courageous and ambitious ruler had considerably improved strength, and was eagerly engaged in his effort to obtain the Delhi throne. The Rajputs too, had begun to reorganise their power after their defeats in the battles of Khanwa and Chanderi. According to Lanepoole, “His (Humayun‟s) name means fortunate and never was an unlucky sovereign so miscalled‟‟, As a matter of fact, the royal throne that he inherited from his father as his successor, was bed of throns and not that of roses.Keywords: Life, battles and events.
CHILDREN'S HEALTH ISSUES
IN VITRO SHOOT MULTIPLICATION IN SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS (LINK) SCHN.).
CHATRAPATI RAJARSHI SHAHU MAHARAJANCHE SHAIKSHANIK YOGDAN
CHATRAPATI RAJARSHI SHAHU MAHARAJANCHYA SHAIKSHANI KARYACHA ABHYAS
FUNCTIONING OF ELECTRONIC DEVICES WITH DIMENSIONS ON THE NANOMETER SCALE
RUSKIN BOND AND NATURE: TWO INDISPENSIBLE NOUNSThe present research paper proposes to study the renowned Indian writer, Ruskin Bond, in terms of his dearly love towards nature. No other Indian writer has expressed his/her love for nature/country in a better way than Ruskin Bond. To put it in his own words, the researcher puts the quote of Ruskin Bond as he himself has said, “I am as Indian as the dust of plains or the grass of a mountain meadow.” (Bond, VII – IX). The paper also distinguishes Bond‟s presentation of Nature from other Indian Writers. The researcher has taken into account select fiction of Ruskin Bond to ponder his love for nature. The researcher proposes to study the social, cultural, economic and geographical image of North India in the novels and short stories of Ruskin Bond. The researcher proposes to examine in what way Ruskin Bond has been able to do justice to the emotional development of his characters in such a setting. Ruskin Bond‟s case is not of dual inheritance but of double inheritance. Bond grew up in changing India and his loyalty always remained with and still remains with India. After the Independence most of the Britishers migrated to their native country but very few who were very old to migrate or who did not have financial support, stayed in India. Though most of English and Anglo Indian families returned to U.K., many of these families chose to remain in India. Ruskin Bond and his mother‟s family were among such „whites‟ settled into peaceful town Dehra. When others were passing through post colonial trauma of displacement, of loss of country, Friends and parents, of insecurity and of finance, Bond, it was only a trauma of a loss of identity. He tried to search his roots in India. (Aggarwal, 66-67)
INFLUENCES OF TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON STUDENT OUTCOMES & EFFICACYTeacher professional development has taken place in isolation and has been dependent upon inputfrom outside “experts” (Sandholtz, A companion of direct and indirect professional developmentactivities. Professional development for teachers is the range of formal and informal processes andactivities that teachers engage in both inside and outside of the school, in order to improve theirteaching knowledge and skills. As an alternative, collaborative action research actively involvesteachers in professional reflection, validates educators as producers of knowledge, and recognizestheir role in professional development and decision making. The value of teacher research is welldocumented (Cochran–Smith & Lytle, Inside outside: teacher research and knowledge, TeachersCollege Press, New York, 1993) but unless deliberate attempts to share findings are established, theproducts of teacher research often remain within individual classrooms. Strategies to developcollaborative research capabilities are needed. The ultimate goal of teacher professional developmentis improving student learning outcomes. Research indicates that teachers have control over manyfactors that influence motivation, achievement and behavior of their students. Therefore, professionaldevelopment focusing on effective classroom management will enhance a teacher’s skills andperformance in the classroom. Skills such as effective classroom management are vital to teachingand require common sense, consistency, a sense of fairness and courage. The skills also require thatteachers understand the psychological and developmental levels of each student. The ability ofteachers to organize classrooms and manage the behavior of their students is critical for achievingpositive educational outcomes. Although sound behavior management does not guarantee effectiveinstruction, it establishes the environmental context that makes good instruction possible.Reciprocally highly effective instruction reduces, but does not eliminate, classroom behaviorproblems. Effective classroom management competencies also significantly influence the persistenceof new teachers in the classroom. Effective classroom management requires a comprehensiveapproach that should include structuring the school and classroom environment, actively supervisingstudent engagement, implementing classroom rules, enacting procedures that encourage appropriatebehavior, using behavior reduction strategies and collecting and using data to monitor studentbehavior and modifying classroom management procedures. Therefore in teacher preparationprograms greater emphasis needs to be placed on preparing teachers to be competent and efficient atmanaging today’s classrooms with their diverse range of learners. This approach means not onlygiving preservice teachers the intellectual understanding of the issuesinvolved but also providingthem supervised experience related to components of classroom management. The purpose of thispaper is to provide research and recommendations related to professional development of teachers,specifically addressing the area of classroom management to improve learning outcomes
SECTARIAN AND ETHNIC MARGINALISATION IN GILGIT-BALTISTANThe construction of the Karakoram Highway in the 1980s, which connected this once inaccessible region to Pakistan and rest of the world, changed the profile of the region. Initially, it brought with it feelings of openness, connectivity, hope and business opportunities with China but it ushered in unprecedented socio-cultural and economic change in Gilgit and Baltistan. It also altered work patterns as well as the social, political and cultural landscape, and agricultural practices and worst of all, it also brought with it outsiders, who have managed to spread fanaticism in the area and change the unique culture of the region which was strongly seeped in its Buddhist past. Many residents complain that they were ill prepared to embrace the \'change\', these outsiders wish to impose. Both Iranian Revolution and Talibanisation of Afghanistan have had deep impact in the region and have brought in clerics who are keen to establish their own brand of puritanical Islam in the region.The paper attempts to analyse the attempts of Pakistani establishment to forcibly assimilate Gilgit-Baltistan, a part of Pakistani occupied Kashmir into Pakistan by changing the demographic character and the local population’s violent reactions to these attempts at marginalising them. The local inhabitants have a unique culture of their own and follow different strands of Shiaism.Keywords: Northern Areas, Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK), Shia, Jammu & Kashmir