NOV-DEC, 2012

Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3
Imapct Factor:
ISSN: 2278-8808
Date: 04-Jan-2013

An International Peer Reviewed

Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies

Bota K. N, Maiyo J. K . & Kunusia W


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 329/343

One of the objectives hinged on and aimed to be achieved by the Special Needs Education (SNE) policy framework in Kenya is to promote quality, relevant and holistic education in ALL institutions for learners with Special Educational Needs (MoE, 2009). The study was aimed to investigate the emerging challenges and prospects of access to quality basic education by the physically challenged (PC) pupils in mainstream and special schools in the 21st century in Kenya. The study adapted the descriptive cross-sectional survey research design. The study population consisted of 6 Head teachers, 36 teachers and 109 non-disabled pupils. Simple random and purposive sampling methods were used to select the study sample. Questionnaires, observation schedule and document analyses were used for data collection. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics. Data was presented using tables, bar graphs and charts. The significance of the study anchored on the Kenya Government goal on SNE and as entrenched in the vision 2030 of providing a globally competitive quality education. The study established that the emerging challenges that hamper provision of quality basic education to the PC included inadequate physical facilities, inadequate special education teachers, poor learning environment, inadequate teaching and learning resources particularly text books in mainstream schools and negative attitude towards the PC. In terms of curriculum implementation, the use of individualized education programmes (I.E.P) was never applied. Further evidence revealed that teachers never prepared adequately. Head teachers placed a lot of emphasis on academic performance in terms of mean scores. Finally, the attitude of non-disabled pupils towards integration with their PC peers was established to be positive. The study recommends that greater emphasis should be placed on programs which aid the pupils in the transition from school to the world of work. The physical, social and learning environment should be improved and sensitization for attitude change should further be enhanced. Gender disparity need to be further addressed to enhance equality in access to basic education.
Key words: Special Needs Education, Physically challenged Pupils, Attitudes, Basic Education 

  • Mendeley

Atsenga, M. (2002). Factors affecting the teaching of oral communication in English language in Secondary schools of Kakamega and Vihiga Districts of Kenya. Unpublished M.ed. Thesis, Egerton University Njoro. Bishop, G. (1995). Curriculum Development, A text book for students; London, Macmillan Education Publishers. Bota, K. (2007).Grade Repetition in Kenyan Primary Schools. Issues of Learning Disabilities; Lit Verlag; Munster. Farrant, J.S. (2002). Principles and Practice of Education. Singapore. Longman Group UK. Fuller, B. (1986). Raising quality in developing countries: What investments boost learning? Washington DC: The World Bank MOE. (2008). Data on Special Needs in Education. Nairobi MOE MOEST (2005), Educational Statistics Nairobi: MOEST Muola J. M (1990). The Effect of Academic Achievement, motivation and home environment on academic performance among standard Eight Students. Unpublished Masters Thesis Kenyatta University Kenya Oketch, M. & Rolleston, C. (2007). Policies on free Primary and Secondary Education in East Africa: Retrospect and Prospect, Review of research in Education, 31 (131-158) Otiende J. & Njoroge B, (2001). Education, Gender and democracy in Kenya. Nairobi Guest & Insight Publishers.

Tecla C. Kirwa


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 344/356

Women play a crucial role in the economic development of their families and communities but certain obstacles such as poverty, unemployment, low household income and societal discriminations mostly in developing countries have hindered their effective performance of that role. As such, most of them embark on entrepreneurial activities to support their families. It is discovered that women entrepreneurship could be an effective strategy for poverty reduction in a country; since women are the worst hit in such situation. However, it is discovered that women entrepreneurs, especially in developing countries, do not have easy access to microfinance factors for their entrepreneurial activity and as such have low business performance than their men counterparts, whereas the rate of their participation in the informal sector of the economy is
higher than males, and microfinance factors could have positive effect on enterprise performance. The purpose of the study was to establish the impact of micro financing on women entrepreneurship in Kakamega Central District. Specifically, the study sought to establish the impact of micro-credit on the performance of women entrepreneurs; the study employed a descriptive survey design. The target population will include 937 women entrepreneurs and 10 managers of the 10 MFIs in Kakamega Central District. The sample population was made up of 286 women entrepreneurs and 10 managers. Purposive sampling was used to pick managers who work in the 10 MFIs. Simple random sampling was used to select women entrepreneurs involved in the activities of the 10 MFIs in the district. Data was collected by use of questionnaires and interviews. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as means, frequencies percentages. Findings were presented using tables, frequency percentages, and figures. The findings of the study revealed that microcredit had great impact in empowering women economically, enhancing their communication skills, building their confidence, promoting their recognition in family, increase in decision making powers, increased income and enhanced reduction in poverty. The study recommended that the government should consider incentives (such as giving tax rebates) to microfinance’s and banks serving women entrepreneurs’ needs. Women’s Business Associations in collaboration with other business support providers should more actively advocate and lobby for a review of: Group lending practices, High interest rates, Short loan repayment periods and size of loans.
Key words: Microfinance, Micro-credit, Entrepreneurs, women 

  • Mendeley

Carter, S. (2000). Improving the Numbers and Performance of Women-owned Businesses: Some Implications for Training and Advisory Service. Education and Training, 42(4/5) 326- 334. Cheston, S. & Kuhn, L. (2002). Empowering Women through Microfinance. Draft Publication commissioned by the microcredit summit campaign. U.S.A. UNIFEM. Goldberg, N. (2005). Measuring the Impact of Microfinance Taking stock of what we know USA. Grammar Foundation. Harper, N. (2003).Microfinance-Evolution, Achievement and Challenges . UK .ITDG Publishing. Hossain, M. (1988). “Credit for Alleviation of Rural Poverty: The Grameen Bank in Bangladesh.” IFPRI Research Report 65. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C. Karanja, A.M. (1996). Entrepreneurship among rural women in Kenya. In Dorothy McCormick & Paul Ove Pedersen (Eds.). Small Enterprises: Flexibility and Networking in an African Context. (pp 131-142). Nairobi, Kenya. Longhorn Kenya. Karnani, A. (2007). Microfinance misses its mark. http// Khandker, S. (1998), "Using microcredit to advance women". World Bank Premnote (November) No8. Washington D.C. World Bank. Kerlinger, F. (1973). Behavioral Research: A Conceptual Approach U.S.A. Hult, Rinehart and Winston Inc. Orlando. Kothari, C. (1990). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi. Wishwa Prakashan

Kimiti Richard Peter & Mwova Mary Maria


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 357/368

The purpose of this study was to investigate the variables that influence career choice among secondary school students in Kenya. The study was guided by two objectives: to determine the influence of peer groups on students’ career choice at secondary school level and to determine the impact of career guidance and information on students’ career choice. The study adopted a survey design. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select the sample of the study. The sample of the study comprised of 24 teacher-counsellors and 240 form four students in twelve selected schools in Machakos and Kitui Counties, Kenya. Two data collection instruments were used for this study; teachers’ and students’ questionnaires. The data was analyzed by the use of frequencies and percentages. The results of the study revealed that only 17.50% of the student respondents stated that they were influenced by their peers when choosing their future career. Presence of career guidance programmes was evident in all the schools selected for this study. Majority of the student respondents (89.5%) indicated that the provision of career guidance and information helped them to make better decisions in choosing their career. The study recommends that peer education should be emphasized in schools since students would be equipped with the proper knowledge and information on career choice. In addition all schools should put in place effective career guidance and counselling departments. The teacher-counsellors should also be in-serviced on issues related to career choice. This will help the students to have more confidence on the careerguidance services provide in schools and thus assist them to make proper decisions when selecting their careers.
Key words: career choice, career guidance, peer influence

  • Mendeley

Adeleye, O.A. (2010). Anticipated Specialties and Iinfluencing Factors among Final Year Medical Students in a Nigerian University. Pak J Med Sci 2010; 26(3):510-514 Aswani, J. S (1991). Some of the home environment that influence educational and Brok, occupational aspiration of standard eight pupils. Unpublished Masters Thesis: Kenyatta University, Nairobi Kenya. Bell, C. (1993). Education and Employment; A critical Analysis Paris, UNESCO. Brembeck, E. (1966). Exploration in Managerial Talent, Santa Monica: CA: Good Year. Brooks,L. & Brown. (1990). The importance of teacher-interpersonal behaviours for student attitudes in Brunei primary science-classed. International Journal of Science Education, 27 (7):765-779.

Mwebi Robert Bisonga & Ngao Gladys K.


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 369/380

As Kenya gears towards achieving vision 2030, stakeholders are concerned that the current
system of education needs to be overhauled to enable it achieve this coveted vision. Quality,
Efficiency and effectiveness in education cannot, however, be achieved without the teachers who
are the pivot of any education system. Hence qualitative improvement in teacher education will
guarantee quality school education, which this paper seeks to highlight based on the premise
that quality begets quality! Thus this paper examines the issues in teacher education and seeks to
provide the way forward on how to solve them and re-align towards achieving the vision 2030.
Key terms: Teacher Education. 

  • Mendeley

Bogonko, S.N. (1992). A History of Modern Education in Kenya, Nairobi: Acme Press. East African standard. October, 2011. UNESCO GMR Report on the Status of Teachers in Sub Saharan Africa 2011. Kafu, P.A. (2010). Teacher Education in Kenya: Emerging Issues: International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction Vol. 1(1), pp. 43 - 52, April 2011 Karanja, M. R. (1995). The Perceptions of Students in Moi and Kenyatta Universities and Cooperating Teachers of Teaching Practice Procedures (Unpublished M.Phil. thesis). Moi University. Lengoibon, G. K. (2009). Unqualified Graduates. The Daily Nation. The Nation Media Group: Nairobi Mangla, S. (2001). Teacher Education: Trends and Strategies. Radha Publications: NewDelhi, India Mwebi, B. R. (2009). Teacher Education in Kenya: The Current Status, Issues and Future Projections (Unpublished paper), Pune University, India.

Wanjala Martin M. S.


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 381/392

The purpose of the study was to identify factors underlying the Mathematics teachers’ attitudes towards the integration of computers in teaching mathematics. Specifically the study attempted to achieve these objectives: (1) determine the attitudes of selected mathematics teachers towards the integration of computers in teaching, (2) identify factors underlying mathematics teachers’ attitudes towards the integration of computers in teaching mathematics, and (3) determine the amount of variance in the teachers’ attitudes towards the integration of computers that can be explained by the identified factors. The analysis was based on 110 respondents comprising of teachers teaching mathematics in the selected secondary schools. The median teaching experience was 4 years. Teachers have positive attitudes towards the integration of computer technology in teaching. Teacher’s attitudes were further classified into four factors using a factor analysis procedure. The four factors were confidence, educational value, apprehension, and liking towards computer. Teachers do not have the confidence, the study shows that teachers are not that apprehensive in the integration of computer in teaching and they like the idea of integrating computers in teaching.
Key Words: ICT, Innovative Classroom Practice, Teachers Attitude. 

  • Mendeley

Adams, D. A., Nelson, R. R. & Todd, P. A. (1992). Perceived Usefulness, Ease of Use, and Usage of Information Technology: A Replication. MIS Quarterly, 16(2), 227-247. Collis, B. (2002). Information technologies for education and training. In Adelsberger, H., Collis, B, & Pawlowski, Fishbein M. & Ajzen I. (1975) Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: Introduction to Theory and Research. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Davis F.D., Bagozzi R. & Warshaw P.R. (1989) User acceptance of computer technology: a Comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science 35, 982–1003 Hu P.J.H., Clark T.H.K. & Ma W.W.K. (2003) Examining technology acceptance by school teachers: a longitudinal study. Information and Management 41, 227–241. Venkatesh, V. & Davis, F. D. (1996). A Model of the Antecedents of Perceived Ease of Use: Development and Test. Decision Sciences, 27(3), 451-481. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE’02) 0-7695-1509- 6/02 $17.00 © 2002 IEEE

Murad Al-Azzani


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 393/402

The major aim of this study is to investigate the effect of proficiency level as well as the designed task on the use of communication strategies among the students. Two communicative tasks were designed to involve learners in a problem-solving activity in order to give the researchers a chance to elicit communication strategies from the subjects’ utterances. The first task was a concept-identification task and another one was a culture-based task. The results of the study showed that there was no difference in the choice of the students for their types of communication strategies used. It has been found that the nature of the designed task was of great effect on determining the subject\\\'s preference of communication strategies. When the students were involved in the concept-identification task, the high-proficient subjects showed strong preference to some types of communication strategies which were supposed to be more preferred by the low-proficient learners. While in the culture-based task, it has been found that the low-proficient subjects used more communication strategies than the high-proficient subjects and that could be attributed to low-proficient limited mastery of L2 vocabulary and grammar.
Key Words: Influence, Profiency, Yemani Students, Communication Stratigies. 

  • Mendeley

Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language Testing in Practice: Designing and Developing Useful Language Tests. Oxford etc.: OUP. Bagaric, V. & Djigunovic J. M. (2007). Defining Communicative Competence. Metodika: Vol. 8, BR. 1, 2007, Page 94-103. Canale.M. and Swain. M. (1980). Theoretical Bases of Communicative Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing. Applied Linguistics, Vol.1, No1 1-47.

Usha D. Kodgire & Maduri Waghchure


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 403/407

 The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of Lezium exercises training for twelve week on selected physical fitness components of school girls aged 13 to 15 year. To achieve the purpose the investigation was carried out in the Narhar Kurundkar High School, Kautha, Nanded. Sixty girls (n=60), were randomly assigned in to two groups Exp.Gr. (Lezium) and Control groups each group consists of 30 students. After the pre-test with the AAHPERD Youth Physical fitness Test Battery, the Exp. Gr.Lezium underwent a training programme of selected Lezium exercises, the dependent variable were assessed before and after training period. Lezium training showed significant improve in Muscular strength (Dynamic) (CD=0.63, p<0.01)., Abdominal muscles strength (CD=0.64, p<0.01),agility (CD=0.63, p<0.01)Explosive strength of legs (CD=0.74, p<0.01), speed (CD=0.57, p<0.01), flexibility (CD=0.59, p<0.01),cardiovascular endurance (CD=0.66, p<0.01). Control group did not show any significant differences in all variables.
Key Words: Lezium Exercise, Physical Fitness

  • Mendeley

American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. (1989). Physical fitness test manual. Reston, V.A. : AAHPERD. American College of Sports Medicine. (1988). Physical fitness in children and youth. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 20, 422-423. Anand, B.K. (1993). Yoga and medical sciences. Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 35, 84. Baumbartner, T.A., and Jackson, A.S. (1982). Measurement for evaluation in physical education (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Bera, T.K., Jolly, S., Ganguly, S.K., & Gharote, M.L. (1995). Effect of three-year yogic exercise programme on motor function in school boys. (Unpublished manuscript), Scientific Research Department, Kaivalyadhama SMYM Samiti, Lonavla (India). Bera, T.K., Rajapurkar, M.V. (1993). Body composition, cardio-vascular endurance and anaerobic power of Yoga practitioner, Indian J. of Physiol. and Pharmacol, 37, 225-228. Bera, T.K., Rajapurkar, M.V. and Ganguly, S.K. (1990). Effect of Yoga training on body density in school going boys. NIS Scientific Journal, 13, 2, 23-25. nt High School Boys. Yoga-Mimamsa, Sept. (Unpublished).

Nain Singh & Ruchi Malhotra


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 408/414

The present study was undertaken to find out the differences between the two groups of men
and women secondary teachers on different dimensions of teaching styles. A sample of 403
secondary teachers was taken from 21 schools of District Shimla, Himachal Pradesh on the
basis of random method. The data were collected with the help of Teaching Style Inventory
for Secondary School Teachers developed and standardized by Singh and Singh (2007). The
results of the study indicate that out of the five most preferred teaching styles only on the
Formal Authority Teaching style the two groups of men and women teachers differ
significantly. Rest on all the four Teaching Styles i.e. Expert, Personal Model, Facilitator
and Delegator, the men and women teachers are alike. Hence, they equally contribute to
enhance the learning of the young students in the class room with their stylistic teaching.
Key Words: Expert, Formal Authority, Personal Model, Facilitator and Delegator. 

  • Mendeley

Butler, K.A. (1984).Learning and Teaching Styles in Theory and Practice. Columbia. The Learners Dimension. (Rev. Ed.). Eagly, A.H. and Johnson, B.T. (1990).Gender and Leadership Styles: Meta Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 108. Page 233 to 256. Eble, K.E. (1983). The Aims of College Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Genc, E., & Ogan-Bekiroglu, F. (2004).Patterns inTeaching Styles of Science Teachers in Florida and Factors Influencing their references.Retrieved from 14\03\2010. Grasha, A.F. (1994). A Matter of Style: The Teacher as Expert, Formal Authority, Personal Model, Facilitator and Delegator. College Teaching, 42. Page 142 to 149. Gregorc, A.F. (1987).Inside Styles: Beyond the Basics. Maynard, Mass: Gabriel Systems, Inc. Kumari, V. (2008). A Study of Thinking and Teaching Styles of Teacher Educators in Relation to Some Selected Variables. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis H. P. University, Shimla.

Sarah Basu


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 430/438

The present study was aimed at investigating the adjustment abilities of secondary school students. The Adjustment Inventory for School Students (AISS) developed by Sinha & Singh was employed to assess the adjustment level of the students. The study was carried out on a sample of 120 secondary school students, keeping in mind various demographic factors. The survey method of research was employed to collect the requisite data. The data so collected was analyzed using statistical measures of Mean, Standard deviation and t- test. The findings of the present study reveal that there exist highly significant differences between the adjustment of secondary school students when compared on the basis of gender, type of family structure and medium of instruction in school.
Keywords: Adjustment, secondary school students, demographic factors 

  • Mendeley

Conger, K.J., Conger, R.D. and Scaramella, L.V., 1997, Parents, siblings, psychological control and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12(1) : 113-138. Drotar, D., 1997, Relating parent and family functioning to the psychological adjustment of children with chronic result conditions. What have we learned ? what we need to know ? Journal of Pediatrics Psychology, 22 (2) : 149-165. Hampel, P. and Petermann, F.,2006, Perceived stress, coping and adjustment in adolescents. J.Adol.Health, 38 (4) : 409-415. Jain, Prabha and Jandu, Krishna, 1998, A comparative study of school adjustment of adolescent girls and boys of employed and non-employed mothers in age group 14-18 years. J. Edu. Res. Extn. , 35(2) : 14-21. Kuruvilla, Moly, 2006, Sex and locale difference in emotional adjustment of adolescents. J. Comm. Guid. Res., 23 (3) : 285-291. Mythili, B., Bharathi, T. and Nagarathna, B., 2004, Adjustment problems of adolescent students. J.Comm.Guid.Res., 21 (1) : 54-61 Pradhan, G.C. (1992). Values pattern of school students as a function of types of schools and levels of intelligence. The Educational Review, XCII, 133-136. Raju, M.V.R. and Rahamtulla, T.K. (2007). Adjustment Problems among School Students. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, Vol. 33, No.1, 73-79.

Krishan Kant, Deepti Redhu & Raj Rani


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 339/348

In almost every developing country teachers are the largest group of workers in the civil or public service and the largest item in the education budget. As the management and delivery of education comes under increasing public scrutiny, the question of how best to manage teachers is receiving much attention. For management, the goal is to have qualified and motivated teachers assigned where they are most needed, with low levels of turnover and attrition and an incentive system that encourages teachers\' commitment and professionalism. For parents, the ideal is to have hardworking teachers who provide high quality education to their children. Simple though these goals may seem, they are far from being achieved in many countries. A main issue in achieving the goals of administrators and parents is how to manage teachers to maximize their effectiveness as educators. In particular, it is important to decide at which level of administration the supervision and management of teachers should rest. In most developing countries, centralized management structures in the education sector have been the norm, usually for logical and compelling reasons. In some countries a centralized system was inherited at independence; in others it was adopted to promote a national identity and to satisfy social expectations for rapid and easy access to education. Following independence, there was often an implicit belief that central planning and state involvement were necessary to overcome inherited social and economic deficiencies. In some countries it was seen as appropriate for a centralizedbody such as the ministry of education to manage teachers to ensure the fair and equitable allocation of what is often a scarce resource. Thus in these countries the setting of teaching standards and the establishment of teacher training, recruitment, pay, conditions, promotion, and discipline are controlled from the center. As education systems have expanded and lessons have been learned in both industrial and developing countries, it has become clear that centralization is not always the best approach for developing and overseeing an effective teacher-management system. Centralized structures have proven to be particularly weak in dealing with day-to-day administrative tasks such as responding to grievances and keeping records. In addition, there has been a shift in social attitudes toward parents\' rights to be involved in their children\'s education. Changes in public opinion about the role and ability of government and the spread of democracy and popular participation have contributed to this shift. Many communities are now demanding a greater say in how their schools are run and how teachers perform; education unions are seeking to give individual schools, teaching teams, and classroom teachers’ greater scope for creativity; and governments are actively looking for viable ways to devolve authority for teacher management to different levels of the system. All of these aspirations have to be balanced against the need for equity for pupils and education personnel. 

  • Mendeley

ANANDAKRISHNAN , M. (2001) Convergence of Knowledge System: Imperatives of Continuous Learning, University News, 39(2) (6–12 August), 2. Amaral, A. L., A. Guedes, T. Lobo, and R. Walker. 1995. "Decentralized Management of Education in Minas Gerais, Brazil." Paper presented at World Bank Seminar on Education Decentralization, June 2, World Bank, Human Development Department, Washington, D.C. 3. Brown, D.J., Decentralization and School-Based Management (London: Falmer Press, 1990). 4. National Knowledge Commission (2009), “Report to the Nation, 2006-2009”, Government of India

Sunanda Jati


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 449/459

Ensuring social access to children with special needs (CWSNs) is a greater challenge as compared to providing physical access. It requires an in-depth understanding of the various educational needs of CWSN and bringing about attitudinal changes at various levels and providing institutional support to sustain these attitudinal changes. A very important dimension of social access is discrimination. CWSNs are subjected to many forms of discrimination. In this context Theme-Based Camps play a pivotal role towards social inclusion of CWSN. Key Words: Theme Based, Innovation, Special Reference.  

  • Mendeley

Progress overview on inclusive education for CWSN,SSA,Ganjam,Orissa, 2008-09 2. Progress overview on inclusive education for CWSN,SSA,Ganjam,Orissa, 2010-11 3. Tripathy, Arunbala.(2011) “Theme Based Camps for CWSN: An innovation by SSA-Orissa” in Confluence, vol.11,pg-54-59

Ritu Mahajan & Harvinder Kaur


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 460/464

The Department of Applied Sciences plays a unique and distinctive role in an institute where the ethos of Science and Technology prevails. It is believed that Engineering and Science are, by their very nature, humanistic and socially derived enterprises; hence the department helps the students to apply the scientific principles along-with human, moral and social understanding. Teaching methods in Applied Sciences emphasize the discursive mode and interpersonal contact between faculty and students. Original contributions to Research in Science and Technology and to ongoing debates in development policy, economic activity and environmental studies are crucial within this department.. The Departmental faculty members are Guides for various projects and M.Tech, M.Phil, PhDs.
Keywords: Applied Sciences, Comparison, Core subjects, Engineering &Technology. 

  • Mendeley

Layton, E., T., (1976), J. American Ideologies of Science and Engineering. Technology and Culture,( 17,688-701. 2. Kline, R. (1995), Constructing “technology” as “applied science, 86, 194-221. 3. Marx, L. (1997), Technology: the emergence of a hazardous concept. Social Research, 64, 965-88. 4. Multhauf, R. P. (1959),The scientist and the “improver of technology.” Technology and Culture, 1, pp. 38-47. 5. Bame, E. A., Dugger, W. E., Jr. and de Vries, M. J.,Pupils, (1993), 'Attitudes towards technology: PATT-USA. Journal of Technology Studies, 19(1), 40-48. 6. Bunge, M. (1994), Technology as applied science. Technology and Culture,(1966), 7(3), pp.329-347. 14. Gardner, P. L. The relationship between technology and science: Some historical and philosophical reflections. Part 1. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 4(2), 123-154. 7. Gardner, P. L. (1995), The relationship between technology and science: Some historical and philosophical reflections. Part 2. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 5(1), pp.1-33. 8. Herschbach, D. R. (1995), Technology as knowledge: Implications for instruction. Journal of Technology Education, 7(1), 31-42. 9. Laporte, J. and Sanders, M. (1993), The T/S/M integration project. The Technology Teacher, 52(6), 17-22. 10. Martin, G. 1995, Technology for all Americans. The Technology Teacher, 54(6), 7. 11. de Vries, M. J. 1994, Design process dynamics in an experience-based context: a design methodological analysis of the Brabantia corkscrew development. Technovation, 14(7), pp.437-448. 12. Bush, V., (1965), The engineer. In Listen to Leaders in Engineering, A. Love and J. S. Childers, eds. (Tupper & Love, Atlanta, pp.1-15.

Mahesh Chandra Pandey


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 465/471

Music delves into the depths of humanity and human consciousness to create harmony. The natural harmony of musical sounds, when combined in a specific manner, has a dynamic and powerful impact in balancing the energies of the body. “Sound can heal the body, mind and spirit as well as the emotions. Music is capable of improving happiness, peace, health and concentration. It is however important to know the method and duration for which Music Therapy is to be administered the first steps towards this is the correct diagnosis of the disease and then the selection of the precise raga that will be helpful. Raga is the sequence of selected notes (swaras) that lend appropriate ‘mood’ or emotion in a selective combination. Depending on their nature, a raga could induce or intensify joy or sorrow, violence or peace and it is this quality which forms the basis for musical application.
Key words: Healing, Power, Music. 

  • Mendeley

Antrim,Doron K.(2011)”Music Therapy” The musical Quartely 30.4(Aug.2006). Premlata sharma(Ed) 1992, Brihatdeshi of Matanga Muni, IGNCA, New Delhi. Sairam, T.V. 2004 b.Raga Therapy. Chennai : Nada Centre for music therapy. Verma, S.2004 (ed) Sangeet Chikitsa. Crandall, J. 1986. Self transformation through Music- New Delhi : New Age. Music therapy Today (Online). Sairam, T.V.(2006), Self-Music Therapy, Nada Centre for Music therapy, Chennai.

Ahlam Islam & Deepika Pandey


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 472/485

It was a period of social upheaval and reforms in India when the mystic Rabindranath Tagore a prominent poet and profound thinker was born in Calcutta on 6 May 1860. He was born into a prominent Calcutta family known for its socio-religious and cultural innovations during the 19th Bengal Renaissance. Rabindranath did not write a central educational treatise, and his ideas must be gleaned through his various writings and educational experiments at Santiniketan. In general, he envisioned an education that was deeply rooted in one’s immediate surroundings but connected to the cultures of the wider world. He felt that a curriculum should revolve organically around nature.
Key Word: Rabindranath Tagore, Visionary, Education, Reconstruction. 

  • Mendeley

Chatterjee, Partha , Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996). Kalyan Sen Gupta, The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore, (Aldershot Hemisphere: Ashgate, 2004) p. 29 O’Connell, Kathleen(2002) Rabindranath Tagore: The Poet as Educator, Calcutta:Visva-Bharati, 2002. Ram Nath Sharma, Textbook of Educational Philosophy (New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers, 2002) p. 320 Rabindranath Tagore: A Biography (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2004) Rabindranath Tagore, ‘My Educational Mission’ in the Modern Review, June 1931, p. 621–3. Rabindranath Tagore, Gitanjali [Song offerings]. English translation in prose by Tagore himself in a book of 103 of his poems published by London, The Indian Society, 1912. Rabindranath Tagore On Rural Reconstruction.(1943). Retrieved September 20, 2012 ,From Sen, Amartya, ‘Tagore and his India’, New York Review of Books, June,1997

Sandhya Gihar & Sachin Tyagi


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 486/496

The main goal of ICT in education is to enhance teaching and learning quality. A number of studies have shown a wide range of factors which influence educators’ utilization of ICTs in their teaching. Computer Phobia is argued to be a major deterrent to the utilization of ICT by educators. Technological advancement has reduced the world into tiny space. In other world, it is something that has really connected people living all over the world and has turned the planet earth into a global village. These technologies assist teacher and facilitate learning. Grabe and Grabe (1998) even reported a recent situation in which computers were not used effectively in teaching practice, due in part to teachers’ attitudes and fears regarding this relatively new technology. Thus, without a knowledge of teachers’ and prospective teachers’ perceptions and future plans for using computer in education, any potential innovations in this area may lack utility. Various researchers studied on computer found that teachers did not know how to use computers. Similarly, Gihar, Saxena and kukreti (2005) also indicated that 70 percent teacher educators accepted that they never used the computer and internet facilities in the classroom teaching. While Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1996; Grabe & Grabe (1998) found 

  • Mendeley

Chen, K.T-C, (2012). Elementary EFL Teachers’ Computer Phobia and Computer Self-efficacy in Taiwan, TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology , April 2012, volume 11 Issue 2. Gupta, D. & Mittal R. (2011). Secondary Preservice Teachers Attitude towards their teacher preparation curriculum, Educational Quest 2 (3): 2011:335-340. Gihar, S., Saxena, M.K. & Kukreti, B.R. (2005). Emerging Technological Advancement in Learning World and Challenges for Leadership Profiles in Teacher Training Institutions”, Proceedings of ICLORD – 2005 (International Conference on Learning Organization in a Learning World), King Mongkut’s University of Technology, Thonbury, Bangkok (THAILAND). Dahiya, S.S. (2008). Educational Technology towards Better Teacher Performance, Shipra Publication Delhi, page 237. Kauts, A. & Gupta, S. (2011). ICT: A Magic wand in the Hands of Teachers, Educational Quest: 2 (3): December 2011:323-328. Office of Technology Assessment (1995). Teachers and Technology: Making the Connection, Reoprt OTA-HER-616, Washington, DC: OTA.

D.Sivakumar & N.Arunachalam


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 497/508

 Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment. This mental capacity or mental energy helps an individual to face new challenges and problems of life as successfully as possible. Ones own mental energy can be judged in terms of the quality of his behavior or performance. This paper reports on the multiple intelligence and achievement of high school students. The sample consisted of 200 high school students. A scale on multiple intelligence was used to get the data from the students. Percentage analysis, t-test, F-test and Pearson-Product moment correlation of co-efficient, were used for analyzing the data. The result shows that there is a correlation between multiple intelligence and achievement in science among high school students.
Key Words: Relational Studies, Multiple Intelligence, Achievement, Science.

  • Mendeley

Gardner, Howard. (1993). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic. Gardner, Howard. (2000). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. Mayer.D.John, Salovey Peter, Caruso.R David, Sitarenios Gill, (2001) “Emotional Intelligence as a standard Intelligence”, Emotion, vol.1, No.3.232-242, American Psychological Association. Panda, B.N. & Mohanty, R.C. (2003). How to Become a Competent/Successful Teacher. New Delhi, Discovery Publishing House. Dash Devendra Nath & Behera Narayan Prashad.(2004) “Teacher Effectiveness in Relation to their Emotional Intelligence”, Journal of Indian Education, November 2004. NCERT, New Delhi. Dass Surendra, (2004) “Emotional Supremacy” Edutracks-April-2004. Neelkamal Publications Pvt. Ltd, Hyderabad. Gopinath. L. (2004) “Emotional Intelligence in Children”, New Frontiers in Education Vol. XXXIV (I), New Delhi.

Mom Mitra De & Debjani Sengupta


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 509/518

 The broad objective of the study was to examine the parent-child relationship that contributes to the social support system of an adolescent that eventually affects his/her Mental Health. The study specifically explored the relationship between parenting and stress from academics of the teenagers of Kolkata Metropolis. A group of 302 adolescents from Kolkata consisting of 150 boys and 152 girls aged 14-18 years participated in the study. They were selected through incidental purposive sampling technique. The tools used were a standardized test on parenting and a questionnaire that measured the stress from studies. Results show prevalence of above average positive parenting of the entire sample under study. The level of stress from academics was found to be within average limit. Parenting was found to have an inverse relationship with the level of stress. The study has extensive implications on the different facets of society at large. Out of many, the two most mandatory causes ie. environmental and psychosocial the study finds solution to these two causes arising basically out of poor parent-child relationship and excess load arising in and from academics. It also serves as an eye opener as to how parenting may affect the Mental Health of the adolescent.
Key Words: Parenting, Adolescents, Mental Health , Kolkata.

  • Mendeley

Bowlby, J. Attachment and loss, Vol I. London: Hogarth, 1969. Bronfenbrenner, U. The Ecology of human Development. experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: harvard University Press, 1979. Calam, R., Bolton, C., and Roberts, J. "Maternal expressed emotion, attributes and depression and entry into therapy for children with behaviour problems." British Journal of Clinical Psychology 41 (2002): 213-216. Dasgupta, Abhijit. "Dying Young." 18 Feb 2010. India Today.>. Deckard, K.D. Parenting Stress. Vols. ISBN 978-81-8193-074-3. New Delhi : Byword Books Pvt Ltd., 2011. Erickson, E.H. Identify youth and Crisis. New York, 1968. Joyce, W. Teens in Distress Series; Adolescent Stress and Depression. The Center for youth development., 2005. Mills et al. "In patient suicide and suicide attempts in veterans affaira hospitals." Jt. Comm Journal Qual Patient Saf Aug, 34(8) (2008): 482-8. Mills, H.,reiss,H. & Dombeck, M. "Social Impact of stress." 20 August 2008. 2011 doc.php?type=doc&id=15651&cn=117>. Mitra, M & Sengupta, Debjani. "the Role of Test Anxiety, Academic overload, Perceived parenting on the Self-Concept of the Adolescents of Kolkata Metropolis." PhD Thesis under University of Calcutta, Department of Education. 2007. "National Crime Reports Bureau." Suicides in India, Chapter - 2, pg 1-21. 25th August 2011 .



Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 519/524

The list of prohibited substances in sports includes a group of masking agents that are forbidden in both in and out of competition doping tests. This group consists of a series of compounds that are misused in sports to make the administration of other doping agents, and includes : diuretics, used to reduce the concentration in urine and other doping agents either by increasing the urine volume or by reducing the excretion of basic doping agents by increasing the urinary pH; probenecid used to reduce the concentration in urine of acid compounds, such as glucuronoconjugates of some doping agents; 5a-reductase inhibitors, used to reduce the formation of 5a-reduced metabolites of anabolic androgenic steroids, plasma expanders, used to maintain the plasma volume after misuse of erythropoietin or red blood cells concentrates; and epitestosterone, used to mask the detection of the administration of testosterone. Diuretics may be also misused to achieve acute weight loss before competition in sports with weight categories.
Keywords: Doping Control, Diuretics, steroids, drugs, cardiology, strength, injury. 

  • Mendeley

"Cardiology"; Sudden Cardiac Death in a 20-Year-Old Bodybuilder Using Anabolic Steroids; R. D. Dickerman et al.; 1995 "Journal of the American Society of Nephrology"; Development of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis After Anabolic Steroid Abuse; L. C. Herlitz et al.; January 2010 "The Physician and Sports Medicine"; Body Image, Disordered Eating, and Anabolic Steroids in Male Bodybuilders: Current Versus Former Users; G. S. Goldfield et al.; April 2009 "Sportverletzung Sportschaden"; Dangers and Risks of Black Market Anabolic Steroid Abuse in Sports --Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analyses; M. Ritsch et al.; March 2000 "Medical Journal of Australia"; Severe Hypoglycaemia Associated with Ingesting Counterfeit Medication; S. K. Chaubey et al.; June 21, 2010

Sushil & Priyanka Jain


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 525/536

Students of classes IX and X were included in the study. Samples of 297 students were selected through random sampling technique. HIV/AIDS Awareness Questionnaire was developed, standardized separately for students and was conducted on selected sample to assess the level of awareness towards HIV/AIDS epidemic. Results and Conclusions: Lack of basic information regarding epidemiology, misconceptions about routes of transmission, symptoms and ignorance towards prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS among students came across as a major issue needing attention. Students had same awareness as they got the information through textbooks; contrarily the study reveals that teachers were not able to handle the curiosity and issues related to HIV/AIDS confidently in the classrooms. As their knowledge level about HIV/AIDS was quite low. Therefore, preventive education for teachers needs priority attention. In this regard, I.A.S.Es and DIETs must take a proactive role to train the in-service teachers and ensure safe sexual behaviour among students/youths, so that they in turn would orient the students with care and caution and bring about basic attitudinal change among adolescents confronting numerous problems related to healthy life and HIV/AIDS. It is suggested that schools have to device ways to open up more effective communication with students in relation to education on sex and HIV/AIDS. In-service as well as pre-service teacher training courses on HIV/AIDS should be emphasized, only then they can transmit the correct and meaningful information regarding HIV/AIDS to the students.
Key words: HIV/AIDS, Preventive Education, 

  • Mendeley

Shah, B. & Sushil (2005), 'HIV/AIDS prevention a challenge to humanity', University news, 43 (28), 3-8, July 11-17. 2. White, D.M. & Ballard, D.J. (1993) ‘The status of AIDS/HIV education in the professional preparation of pre service elementary teachers’, Journal of Health Education, 24 (2), 68-72, EJ 463320. 3. Sushil. (2009) ‘Socio-Environmental factors associated with HIV/AIDS and exploring the role of education’, Ph.D. Thesis in Education, MJP Rohilkhand University, Bareilly.

Sheeba S. Nair


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 537/543

Imtiaz Dharker is an expatriate writer who found an entry into the domain of Indian English poetry with the collection of poems titled Purdah. Dharker could soon emerge as a promising new voice in the realm of Indian English Poetry. Her carefully gauged words along with her evocative drawings convey the various human predicaments and issues that throttle human beings especially women in the course of their existence. The present study strives to trace the struggle a woman undertakes to achieve progress from the imposed restrictions towards self-realization, seeking an abode that promises hope. With this objective, some of Dharker’s poems namely Purdah, They’ll say, “she must be from another country”, Tow Path and Living Space have been selected for scrutiny. These poems uncloak brilliantly how a woman’s life takes transformation from a veiled existence into that of self actualization which drives her to find a sanctuary of her choice.
Key Words: Marginalization, Male Chauvinism, Second sex, Purdah, Patriarchy. 

  • Mendeley

Choudhury, Madhurita. “Re-presenting Third World Women: A Study of Select Writings of Imtiaz Dharker, Debjani Chatterjee and Suniti Namjoshi.” Migrant Voices in Literatures in English. Eds. Sheobhushan Shukla and Anu Shukla. New Delhi: Sarup& Sons, 2006. P.171-78. Dharker, Imtiaz. “Poems.”, 2007. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. ---. “Poems.” India- Poetry International Web. 17 July 2007. Web. 13 Jan 2012. Pinto, Jerry. “Imtiaz Unbound.” 2 Aug.2004. Web. 13 Jan 2012. Scholz, Sally J. Ed. Feminism. UK: One World, 2011. Singh, Kanwar Dinesh. “Man- Women Relationship.” Ed. Contemporary Indian English Poetry. New Delhi: Atlantic, 2008. P.15-55.

Ummed Singh & Hansaben D. Patel


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 544/550

The unique personality emerging as a result of interaction between different members of an organization can be broadly defined as ‘Organisational Climate’. The organizational climate may ultimately be defined in terms of interaction that takes place between organizational members as they fulfill their prescribed roles while satisfying their individual needs. The distinct climate, atmosphere, or personality perceived by persons in a particular building is a result of the manner in which actors at each hierarchical level of the organization interact with each other and with incumbents of other hierarchical levels.
Thus, taking into consideration the interdependence between Organizational Climate and other variables a training programme for teachers and Headmasters of Navodaya Vidyalayas may be planned and strategies for changing the school climate may be defined. Hence ‘School effectiveness’ in terms of academic achievement index of the Navodaya Vidyalayas teacher satisfaction and other output variables in terms of quantity and quality may be raised. In this way the study may provide guidance and help to administrators of Navodaya Vidyalayas samiti in planning and implementing programmes to achieve this end with respect to Navodaya Vidyalayas of India.
Key words: Organisational climate, Navodaya Vidyalaya, Gujarat. 

  • Mendeley

Argyris, Chris. (1957). Personality and Organization, New York : Harper and Row. Halpin, A.W. and Croft, D.B.(1963). The Organizational Climate of Schools, Chicago : University of Chicago. Halpin, A.W.and Croft, D.B.(1963). The Organizational Climate of School Administrator’s Note book, XI ( 7 ). Halpin, A.W. and Winer B.J.(1970). A Factorial Study of the Leader Behaviour Description , cited in Stogdill, Ralph M. and Coons A.E.,(Ed.). Leader Behaviour : Its Description and Measurement, ( Columbus Ohio : The Ohio State University). Kenney, J.B. and Rentz, R.R.(1970). The Organizational Climate of schools in five Urban Areas, The Elementary School Journal, 71, 2. Sharma, M.L. (1969). A Comparative Study of Organizational Climates of Government Secondary Schools and Private Secondary Schools of Churu District, Rajasthan, Journal of Educational Research and Extension, pp.120-26. Sharma, M.L. (1982). Diagnosing School Climate, Sardar Shahr, Rajasthan : International Consultants.

K. Premalakshmi


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 551/565

Education is an essential human virtue. Education is bringing out the best already in human. Study Habit is a factor, which has its own weightage in establishment of the children in the field of education, which differs from individual to individual. Students should be made aware of the importance of it and proper training should be given right from childhood.
The scope of the study is more to enhance the academic achievement among adolescents. Every Parent wants their child to do well in school and to learn as much as they possibly can. To be good students, adolescent need to develop good Study Habits at home and school. Parents can help to develop good Study Habits at home. Development of a good Study Habits is an art. Formation of regular Study Habits is the first step for the Academic Achievement. Students should be practiced at home and school to have a good Study Habits. Steps are to be taken by the educational experts and parents to strengthen the children in all the above aspects which will have positive contribution for the development of our nation. From the research, the researcher is able to find that the variable Study Habits is contributing for the Academic Achievement.
Key words: study habits, academic achievement, & higher secondary students 

  • Mendeley

Murphv(1999) An Introduction to Psychology, Basic Books, New York. Gormly. A.V. and Brondzinsky (1993) Lifespan Human Development, Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Halen Bee (1989) The developing Child, Harper Collins Publishers. parris. J.R., Lierbert.R.M. (1987) The Child, Prentice Hall Inc., Delhi. Hebb. D.O. (1997) Text Book of Psychology, W.B.Saunders Co., Me. Hill University, Philadelphia. Jerkome Kagan (1984) The "Nature of the Child, Basic Books Inc.,Publishers, New York. Jersild. A.Tand Gates A.I. (1985) Educational Psychology, Macmillan Publishing Limited. New York. Kala S.K. (1980) Child Psychology and Child Guidance, Himalaya Publishing House. Bombay. Mangal S.K (2002) Advanced Educational Psychology, II Edition, Prentice Hall of India Private limited, New Delhi. Martin Herbert (1985) Caring for your children. Basic Black Well Limited, New York.

Anil Kumar Agnihotri


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 566/582

The present study is based on the assumption that socio-economic-status and intelligence play an important role in the academic achievement of the students. At present Govt. is doing its all efforts to educate each and every child of the country. Various programmes are launched, different policies are framed, and various budget provisions are made to ensure access to education. It is attempted that after these all efforts whether academic achievement is related to Intelligence and socio-economic status or not. If yes, then what is the level of relationship alongwith some other factors which are contributing to the level of Academic Achievement among the students.
Keywords: Academic Achievement, Intelligence, Socio-Economic-Status, High School students 

  • Mendeley

Chadda, N.K. and Chandna Sunanda (1990). “Creativity intelligence and scholastic achievement”, A residual study, Indian Educational Review, Vol. 25(3), pp. 81-85. Desh Pande, Shashikala and R. Saraswati (1991). “Relationship between Homework and Achievement”. Perspectives in Education, 7 (2), 105-112. Garcia Bacete, Francisco-Juan and Oliver Rodriguez, Juan Carlos (Universidad Jaume I; Developmental, Educational, Social, and Methodological Psychology Department, Castellon, Spain). “Family and ability correlates of academic grades: Social status group differences”. Psychological Reports, 2004 (Aug.), Vol. 95(1), 10-12. Georgiou, Stelios, N. (U. Cyprus, Department of Education, Nicosia, Cyprus), “Achievement attributions of sixth grade children and their parents”. Educational Psychology, 1999 (Dec.), Vol. 19(4), 399-412. Guerrero, B.G. (2000). “An analysis of Academic, Demographic, and Non-cognitive Factors and the Influence of Academic Performance during the Freshman year in college”. Dissertation Abstract International Vol. 61, Jan 2001, P.2591A.

G. S. Panikar


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 583/592

The relatively stable economic environment, favourable demographic scenario and the attitudinal shift in the psyche of the new Indian consumer offer organised retailing both opportunities and challenges. This along with experimentation in retail formats and entry of international players is slowly transforming the Indian retail market.
Indian retailers need to have a renewed approach to retail marketing so as to gain a competitive advantage and to gain an entry into the hearts and minds of the consumer. Retailers should be willing to experiment with retail formats including exploring online retailing and tie ups with traditional retail formats like kirana stores. The retail product offering should offer value for money and retailers need to put in more efforts to promote private labels and reach out and cater to a wider customer base across India including smaller towns and rural areas which also pose significant opportunity. The retail experience however should go beyond this to create experiences which should also entertain and engage the consumer through various touch points to increase their involvement with the retail brand. There are operational and infrastructural issues like lack of trained manpower and the need for more investment in information technology and a stronger supply chain and back end to streamline operations and plug in shrinkage and wastage so that Indian retailers can benefit from the opportunities posed by the retail market. 

  • Mendeley

Agarwal S. (2012) ‘Ikea plans to tweak designs for Indian market’ Retrieved from on 24/11/2012 Aggarwal M. and Goyal B.B. (2009), ‘Organized retailing in India- an empirical study of appropriate formats and expected’ Global Journal of Business Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Hilo: The Institute for Business and Finance Research Akhter S. And Equbal I. (2012), ‘Organised Retailing in India – Opportunities and Challenges’ International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Zenith International Research & Academic Foundation (ZIRAF) India

Beena Indrani


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 593/602

Distance education is becoming a good way to acquire knowledge separate from the traditional method of attending the classroom. Examples of the use of variety of distance delivery methods, such as teleconferencing in Australia, show how useful distance delivery is around the world (Olive & Reeves, 1996).
To the learners, distance learning means more freedom of access and thereby a wider range of opportunities for learning and qualification. The barriers that overcome by distance learning include not only overcome by distance learning include not only geographical distance, but also other confining circumstances, such as personal constraints, cultural and social barriers and lack of infrastructure. Distance learning may also mean a more learner-centered approach, allowing greater flexibility and choice of content as well as more personal organization of learning programme (UNESCO, 2002).
Key words: Strategies, Distance Learner 

  • Mendeley

Burge, E. (1993). Adult distance learning: Challenges for contemporary practice. In Thelma Barer-Stein and James A. Draper (Eds.) The craft of teaching adults (pp. 215-230). Toronto, Ontario: Culture Concepts. (ED 362 644). Garrison, D. R. & Shale, D. (1987). Mapping the boundaries of distance education: Problems in defining the field. The American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 1(1), 7-13. Jonassen, D.H. (1992). Applications and limitations of hypertext technology for distance learning. Paper presented at the Distance Learning Workshop, Armstrong Laboratory, and San Antonio, TX. Keegan, D. (1986). The foundations of distance education. London: Croom Helm. Moore, M. G. & Thompson, M.M. (1990). The effects of distance learning: A summary of the literature. Research Monograph No. 2. University Park, The Pennsylvania State University, American Center for the Study of Distance Education (ED 330 321). Morgan, A. (1991). Research into student learning in distance education. Victoria, Australia: University of South Australa, Underdale. (ED 342 371). Perraton, H. (1988). A theory for distance education.In D. Sewart, D. Keegan & B. Holmberg Ed.), Distance education: International perspectives (pp.34-45). New York: Routledge. Schuemer, R. (1993). Some psychological aspects of distance education. Hagen, Germany: Institute for Research into Distance Education. (ED 357 266). Sherry, L. (1996). Issues in distance learning. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, vol.1 (4). 337-365.

Bhuvnesh Bhardwaj


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 1/13

Education is the most influential instrument of modernization and socialization. It has been regarded both as an end in itself and as a means of realizing desirable ends. Education means all round and total perfection of the individual and the society. It develops the personality and rationality of individuals, qualifies them to fulfill certain economic, political and cultural functions and thereby improves their socio-economic status. Key Words: Tagore Vision, Women education.  

  • Mendeley

Choube, S.P. 1987). Great Indian Educational Philosophers, Agra: Vinod Pustak Mandir. Dutta, Baby 1990). „Contribution of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar to the development of education of women in Bengal? reproduced from Fifth Survey of Educational Research Vo..II 1988- 92), M.B. Much Editor), New Delhi : National Council of Education, Research and Training. Gandhi, Krishna et, al. 1994). Thoughts and Ideas of Gandhi, Nehru, Tagore and Ambedkar, New Delhi: Jawahar Publishers and Distributors. J.C. Aggarwal 2004) Eight Revise Edition, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi. Mahalingam, K. 1992). „Educational thoughts of Gandhiji and their relevance to contemporary education? reproduced from Fifth Survey of Educational Research Vol. II 1988-92), M.B. Buch Editor). New Delhi: National Council of Education, Research and Training. Mani, R.S. 1996). Educational Ideas and Ideals of Gandhi and Tagore, New Delhi: New Book Society of India. Mansi, R.S. 2000). Educational Ideas and Ideals of Gandhi and Tagore Comparative Study), New Delhi: New Book Society of India.

Ms. Shilpi Kumari


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 603/610

The issue of preparing teachers for diversity in the classroom still has a marginal status in the mainstream teacher education literature. Hence, teacher education reformers have given no or if any, only little attention to review the teacher education curriculum from the perspective of diverse learners in the real classroom setting. The current article brings into focus how teacher education programme should be evolved for equipping teachers to deal effectively with learners in their diverse context. It emphasized that diversity should be considered as a phenomenon rather than a problem and thus developing new beliefs, attitude and dispositions on the part of student-teachers. It attempted to suggest the best ways, taking into account the findings of several studies, to be undertaken for restructuring teacher education programme for diverse learners.
Keywords: Diverse learners, Teacher Education Reform, Multicultural and Interdisciplinary Teacher Education 

  • Mendeley

Banks (1991). Teaching Multicultural Literacy to Teachers. Teaching Education. Page 135-144. 1991. Beyer, L. E., and Zeichner, K. (1987). Teacher Education in Cultural Context: Beyond Reproduction. In T. Popkewitz (Ed.), Critical Studies in Teacher Education. New York, Falmer Press. Chisolm, J.M. (1994). Culture and Technology Implications for Multicultural Teacher Education. Journal of Information Technology and Teacher Education. Page 213-228. 1994, January. Forlin, Tait, Carroll & Jobling (1999). Teacher Education for Diversity. Queensland Journal of Educational Research. Page 207-226. 1999, September. Gay, G. (2000). Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research and Practice. New York, Teachers College Press.

Balbir Singh Jamwal


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 635/642

 In the present study, an attempt has been made to find out the self esteem and risk taking behaviour of adolescents. The results reveal that there is significant difference among male and female, high and moderate behavior of male, high and moderate behaviour of female, high and moderate behaviour of rural, high and moderate behaviour of Urban adolescents in relation to risk taking behaviour and difference among self esteem of rural and urban adolescents. There is no significant difference among male and female adolescents in relation to self esteem and rural and urban adolescents in relation to risk taking behaviour.
Key Words: self-esteem, risk, behaviour

  • Mendeley

Chaubey, N.P. (1974), “Motivational demensions of rural development”, Allahabad; Chaitanya Publishing House. Coopersmith Stanley (1987), “Self-esteem inventory of school”, Pallo Alto Consulting Psychologist. Parakash, B. and Chaturvedi, S.C. (1989), “Risk taking and academic achievement”, Journal of Education, Vol-25, No. 3, pp. 131-135. Sinha & Arora (1983), “Manual for Risk taking Questionnaire”. Verma, B.P. (1990), “Sex related differences in risk taking self confidence and anxiety among the adolescents learners”, Indian Educational Review, pp. 93-97.



Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 643/649

Reading literacy is not only a foundation for basic learning, but also a prerequisite for successful participation in most areas of youth or adult life .The future success of children lies in the ability to read fluently and understand what is read. Studies showed that at least one out of five students has significant difficulty in reading acquisition. As a result of poor reading ability they commit more spelling mistakes. This study examined the effectiveness of Eclectic Method on Word reading, reading comprehension and Spellings ability among elementary school students. 120 class fourth students were selected to participate in one month programme. ANCOVA was employed for analyzing the data. Results indicated that Word reading, reading comprehension and spellings scores of the experimental group students improved significantly.
Key Words: Eclectic Method, Reading Ability and Spelling Ability 

  • Mendeley

Bursuck, W. D., Smith, T., Munk, D., Damer, M., Mehlig, L., & Perry, J. (2004). Evaluating the impact of a prevention-based model of reading on children who are at risk. Remedial and Special Education, 25, 303-313. Calhoon, M. B. ( 2005). Effects of a peer-mediated phonological skill and reading comprehension program on reading skill acquisition for middle school students with reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 38, 424-433. Camilli, G. , Vargas,S., & Yurecko,M.(2003). Teaching Children to read : The fragile link between science and federal education policy , Education Policy Analysis Archives ,11(15), Retrieved on May 8,2011 from Hausheer,R., Hansen,A. and Doumas,D. (2011). Improving Reading Fluency and Comprehension Among Elementary Students: Evaluation of a School Remedial Reading Program Journal of School Counseling 9.9 . Kohli, T. (2001). Comparison of various Remedial Strategies in Reducing language disabilities of Dyslexic children NCERT Sponsored Project. Linnakyla, P., Malin, A., Taube, K. (2004). Factors behind low reading literacy achievement. Scandinavian Journal of Education Research, 48, 231-248. Therrien, W. J. (2004). Fluency and comprehension gains as a result of remedial reading. Remedial and Special Education, 25, 252-261.

Seema Dhawan


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 650/659

Environmental education incorporates a human component in exploring environmental problems and their solutions. An eco club is a group of students with the objective to take the children to the environment and bring the environment into the classroom. It acts as the nucleus of environment education activities. It extends opportunities for developing and fastening certain abilities in children such as leadership, communication skill, creativity, planning and organizing etc. it is an effective tool to generate environmental awareness among the students. It is concluded that this club is successful in engaging students in thinking, learning and igniting sensitivity about environmental issues, although some activities of the club are more likely than others to lead to impacts beyond the bounds of the classroom. The paper entails the influence of Eco club on students’ environmental awareness. The environmental awareness of eco club and non eco-club students has been compared.
Keywords: Eco club, Environmental education, Environmental awareness. 

  • Mendeley

Ballantyne, R., Connell, S. & Fien, J. (1998a) Students as catalysts of environmental change: a framework for researching intergenerational influence through environmental education, Environmental Education Research, 4(3), pp. 285 - 298. Ballantyne, R., Connell, S. & Fien, J. (1998b) Factors contributing to intergenerational communication regarding environmental programs: Preliminary research findings, Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 14, 1 - 10. Ballantyne, R., Fien, J. & Packer, J. (in press) Programme effectiveness in facilitating intergenerational influence in environmental education: lessons from the field, Journal of Environmental Education.

Ramandeep Singh Bhatti & Naginder Kaur


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 659/675

In general knowledge management is regarded as a series of interrelated activities, such as knowledge identification, acquisition, storage, distribution, reuse, maintenance and development that help society in taking right decisions in an appropriate way. As a powerful source, KM and e-learning work together in letting users obtain their requirements in the form of correct and complete information .In an organizational content ,the concept of KM could be defined as actions taken to create ,save, and resuse the organizational KM .In order to share the information through people and organizations, e-learning plays a vital role which involves teaching and learning process and also content management .It views KM or a structural resource which can be represented with relative form. Just as with any other document and resource management ,KM aims to provide proper KM at the right form, and to the right KM worker. Therefore, to address issues like how to capture, represent, manipulate ,utilize, and share KM for effective KM ,e-learning is an important method which can facilitate the capture, storage, sharing, dissemination, and creation of knowledge about teaching and learning.
Key Word: E-learning, Knowledge Management, Quality 

  • Mendeley

nn Kovalchick and Kara Dannson (2004) Education Technology; An Encyclopedia. California: Ann Kovalchick and Kara Dannson Division. * Chawhan, Anamika Krishan,``Knowledge Management,’’p.10 ? Bernard, R. and others.(2004).How does distance education compare with classroom instruction? a meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 74:379-439. ? Diptiman Dasgupta&Radranil Dasgupta,``Knowledge management,’’p.5-6. ? Gaurav Chadha, Nafay Kumail S M (2002) E-Learning :An Expression of the Knowledge Economy. New Delhi: Tata Mcgraw-Hill.

Shalu Goyal


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 676/681

This paper explored the level of professional commitment of teacher educators serving in B.Ed. colleges. The data were gathered through scale for professional commitment of teacher educators’ from 50 teacher educators of 5 B.Ed. colleges of Punjab. The results showed that the level of professional commitment of B.Ed. teacher educators in Punjab is high. The significant differences were found in professional commitment of B.Ed. teacher educators with regard to gender, marital status and NET qualification. This paper has highlighted the issues related with professional commitment among teachers.
Key words: Professional, Commitment, Teacher educators 

  • Mendeley

Fullan, M., and A. Hargreaves. (1991). What's Worth Fighting for in Your School? Toronto: Ontario Public School Teachers' Federation; Andover, Mass.: The Network; Buckingham, U.K.: Open University Press; Melbourne: Australian Council of Educational Administration. Locke, E.A. (1969). What is Job Satisfaction? Organizational Behavior and Human, 4, 309-336. Kohli,K.(2005a) scale for professional commitment of teacher educators. RPC,Meerut. Kohli,K.(2006 b) Assesment of professional commitment of teacher educators.edutracks 5,1,23-27. Jans, N.A. (1989). Organizational Commitment, Career Factors, and Career/Life Stage. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 10(3), 247-266.

Harpreet Singh


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 682/687

No doubt environmental changes give an opportunity to reshape the current development model but the extreme and long turn impacts of environmental changes on resources threaten human survival. Most affected areas are developing countries and poor people because either they lack or no technology to cop with such devastating effects. Climate change will increase biodiversity loss, affecting both individual species and their ecosystems. The long-term consequences of global warming resulted into desertification and depletion of resources, especially shortages of water and fertile land. The depletion of such resources, generate poverty and resulted into displacement of population from one place to another. Food and Water are important issues which are affected by climate change because these are interwoven with so many sustainable development issues, such as health, food security, and poverty. The gravest effects of climate change may be those on human migration as millions of people are displaced due to shortage of water and food. This paper tries to link the issues of environmental changes, water and food scarcity and induced migration of people.
Keywords: Climate change, Scarcity, Migration 

  • Mendeley

Bierman, F. and I. Boas. 2008. Protecting Climate Refugees: The Case for a Global Protocol. Black, Richard. 2001. Environmental refugees: myth or reality? Boano, C. 2008. FMO Research Guide on Climate Change and Displacement. Castles, S. 2002. Environmental change and forced migration: making sense of the debate. Dasgupta, Susmita. et al. 2007. The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis. Environment Magazine, Vol.50, No.6:10-16. Greenpeace. 2008. Blue Alert. Climate Migrations in South Asia: Estimates and Solutions. Houghton, J. 2005. Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. UNHCR Working Paper No.34. UNHCR Working PaperNo.70. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4136, February 2007.

Lokanath Mishra


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 688/694

The word conflict conjures up associations of tension, disruption, and violence with the expectation of anything from uncomfortable to life-threatening situations. From such a perspective conflict is something to be avoided or even suppressed. A common definition of conflict in the literature on conflict analysis is a situation in which two or more individuals or groups perceive that they possess mutually incompatible goals. P&CRE contributes to the creation of peaceful environment in schools and community by: Revealing the concepts of peace and conflict, discussing their definitions, analyzing positive and negative meanings of the conflict; Teaching skills in analyzing conflicts, including understanding the causes of conflict, identification of the levels of conflict escalation, finding possible ways for conflict resolution, clarification of the positions of conflicting sides, conflict mapping; Helping schoolchildren understand the difference between their own behavior and behavior of separate individuals in different conflict situations and their impact on conflict escalation;
Key words: Conflict, Peace Education. 

  • Mendeley

Allen, Bernard. Children in Control. Facing up to behaviour problems. Bristol. Lame Duck Publications 1995. Bliss, Theresa. Managing Children. Strategies for the Classroom and Playground. Bristol. Lame Duck Publications 1994. Bliss, Theresa and Tetley Jo. Circle Time. For Infant, Junior and Secondary Schools. Bristol. Lame Duck Publications 1995. Bliss, Theresa & Robinson, George & Maines, Barbara. Developing Circle Time. Bristol. Lame Duck Publications 1995. Boulding, Elise. Building a global civic culture. Education for an Interdependent World. New York & London: Teachers College Press 1988.

Anoj Raj


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 694/702

Through this study, it was tried to find out the achievement of male and female students
in theory and practical. For this purpose a sample of 264 male and female post-graduate science
students from the three campuses of Garhwal University (Srinagar, Pauri and Tehri) were
selected by proportionate allocation random technique. Therefore 88 individual were taken from
each campus. The sample was distributed between four-allied discipline of science i.e. Physics,
Chemistry, Zoology and Botany. The Examination Mark- Sheets and Family Background
Information Blank were used. Result indicates that female students secured more achievement
score in practical and theory than that of male students. Students’ achievement is positively
related to parental education, family income and family occupation.
Key words: Academic Achievement, Theory, Practical in Relation 

Hassanian Raheem Kareem


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 703/708

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is dangerous because it can lead to strokes, heart attacks,
heart failure, or kidney disease and many more disease aliments. The goal of hypertension prediction is
to intimate high blood pressure to get the right treatment and protect important organs, like the brain,
heart, and kidneys from damage. Treatment for hypertension has been associated with reductions in
stroke (reduced an average of 35%-40%), heart attack (20%-25%), and heart failure (more than 50%),
according to research [1]. Hypertension is widely considered to be one of the most important risk factors
for these diseases and is strongly associated with death from stroke, congestive heart failure and
coronary heart disease. Present study focuses on predicting high blood pressure using data mining
technique from stored database using decision tree. 

Mohammad Naeemullah


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 709/716

A few years, the programmable graphics processor unit has evolved into an absolute High
performance computing. Simple data-parallel constructs, enabling the use of the GPU as a
streaming coprocessor. A compiler and run time system that abstracts and virtualizes many
aspects of graphics hardware. Commodity graphics hardware has rapidly evolved from being
a fixed-function pipeline into having programmable vertex and fragment processors. While
this new programmability was introduced for real-time shading, it has been observed that
these processors feature instruction sets general enough to perform computation beyond the
domain of rendering. Proposed research work is a translation of share memory program to
graphics processing unit for regular loop and irregular loop in parallelism. The them of this
translation is to make the efficient for reduce the execution time for the huge amount of data
processing for such a application . An analysis of the effectiveness of the Graphics
Processing Unit as a computing device compared to the Central processing Unit , to
determine when the GPU can produce outstanding result rather than the CPU for a
particular algorithm for Application.
To achieve good performance, our translation scheme includes efficient management of
shared data as well as advanced handling of irregular accesses.
Keywords: Share Memory Programming Model, GPU, Parallel Computation, Load transfer 

Keyan Abdul Aziz Mutlaq


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 709/714

Cloud computing is an emerging technology now a days. All the organization whether small or
large are moving towards it. Cloud computing is the use of computing resources (hardware and software)
that are delivered as a service over a network (typically the Internet). The name comes from the use of a
cloud-shaped symbol as an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it contains in system diagrams.
Cloud computing entrusts remote services with a user\'s data, software and computation.Since data is a
valuable entity for any organization and ensuring security for it is very important therefore security is a
major Issue in cloud computing these days. This paper focuses on the security issue. It gives idea of cloud
computing, risk involved and security concerns in brief.
Key words: security , cloud computing 

X. Vengo Regis & P.Annaraja


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 715/721

This paper attempts to find out the level of thinking styles of higher secondary
students. Thinking styles developed by Robert J. Sternberg (1997) was used to collect the
data. 2000 higher secondary students were selected randomly for this study. The findings of
the study revealed that the boys’ are better than the girl’s in their hierarchic, oligarchic and
anarchic thinking styles. In district wise, Thoothukudi district students are better in
hierarchic and oligarchic thinking styles.
Key words: Thinking Styles, Higher secondary 

Rahul Khot, Gawade S.S. & Vinnay Patil


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 722/733

Weld joints form an important part of pressure vessels, ships buildings, pressure vessels,
water reactors, concrete slab plates, boilers are highly essential for structural integrity of
the system. Typical welds are done on flat surfaces and their strengths are well catalogue for
reference. The standard data related to the no. of welds, thickness of plate, size of
overlapping length for flat plate is available. But such a type of standard data is not
available in the market for curved plate. So the objective of this paper is to analyze welds on
curved plated and determine their strength, and create a similar catalogue for curved

G L Gulhane


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 734/740

India is striving hard to emerge as developed nation by 2020 and education has to play an important role in producing global competitive manpower. Educational Research plays an important role in exploring problems associated with education and as a consequence it improves teaching and learning process. Research is something which is concerned with analytical examination of facts and exploring new dimensions of knowledge. Research and intellectual creation are necessary to develop a critical innovative approach. An increasing investment in research and development of information technology would result in skill and efficiency enhancement and would serve as a foundation for the knowledge based society. But researches in universities tend to be confined within the safe walls of respective disciplines and interdisciplinary approach is rarely followed. This paper examines the factors affecting quality of educational research and educational research trends in Vidarbha Region of Maharashtra. The aim of this study was to identify the factors affecting quality of research in education and to compare the opinion of male and female researchers towards the factors related to research like: a) infrastructure facilities; b) financial support; c) evaluation of thesis; d) motivational force; and e) research ethics. Survey method was adopted and the data were collected by means of interview schedule and attitude scale. The study reveals that there is significant difference between the opinion of male and female researchers towards the factors namely evaluation of thesis and research ethics; whereas there is no significant difference between the opinion of male and female researchers towards the factors namely infrastructure facilities; financial support; and motivational force. Alsoin this study, researchers viewed the universities should ensure the task of channelizing the higher education and research work, to make the society realize, the qualitative fruits of new innovations and ideologies.
Key Words: Research Trends, Teacher Education.

Vikas Mane


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 741/753

Most tribal live in forest areas, and so not exposed to urban culture, others are mobile, so not able to reside permanently and settle for prosperity. Their xenocentric cultural identity and general alienation by the urban and rural elites, drives them into isolation from the mainstream. In the process the biggest casualty is education. . The registration, attendance and school drop-out rates of the tribal children are the worst in the society. All these deficient parameters are due to the mainstream society following a school-education model that caters only to the urban mainstream culture, not matching the xenocentric tribal culture. School Curriculum in Ashram Schools, Teacher training and motivation in Tribal schools, Language of Instruction, accommodating the culture and avocation pattern of tribal’s in school curriculum are the most important issues that need to be tackled so that the socio-cultural identity of the tribal’s is retained and at the same time they given exposure of mainstream culture. And again at the same time the mainstream culture avails of the indigenous and sustainably developing lifestyle of the tribal culture.
Key words: Tribal Curriculum, Ashram School, Indigenous Culture, Teacher Training, 



Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 754/757

This article studies deals with the issue of media literacy. It initially offers some definition of media literacy and deals with such issues in this regards as the effect of technology on development of media literacy in 21st century. It also brings into limelight the role of media literacy on the development of general knowledge of women citizens and finally it considers the characteristics of media literate people. The findings of the study suggested that some factors have a key role in the successful development and advancement of media literacy among rural women.
Keywords: Literacy, Media Literacy 

Dr.Jayshree A.Airekar.


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 758/762

Freedom of Information, a phrase coined in the United States, is a very different notion from the
freedom of speech, freedom of press or freedom of expression. It empowers the common man to
obtain information in possession of the State. The Right to Information Act, 2005 is a very powerful
tool, given in the hands of Indian citizens. It provides them a chance to transform the way the
government and its officials function. Asking the government for information, one asks for the
government to be transparent and accountable to its citizens.
Key Word: - RTI, Empowering Citizens, Right to Freedom, Accountability, Transparency. 

J. R. Sonwane


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 768/772

Collaborative learning is an educational method or methods where two or more students work together to learn something. It\'s based on the general premise that groups of students can learn more from each other through sharing and social interaction than they would if they learned on their own. This paper shows general basic information about cooperative learning and it is cusses about a small experiment taken on M.Ed. students of Bhavnagar university with its process and results. Findings of this study have been shown as both approaches; qualitative and quantitatively.
Keywords. collaborative learning, active learning 

Navleen Kaur


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 773/781

With the world going global today, has led to growth in diversity of the student population in all
parts of the world. This subject is highly deliberated upon with great concern and fervor. As per
the biologists and the psychologists, no two individuals are born alike. They are born with their
individual differences. But heredity and environment play a mighty role in shaping their lives.
These differences among students may include the language, culture, religion, gender, varied
abilities, sexual preference, socioeconomic status, geographical setting, etc. They may be gifted,
exceptional, talented, slow learners, learning disabled and the like. The differences are often
looked upon as a problem or a handicap rather than an opportunity for getting acquainted with
different lives. How these students can be included, valued, respected, and greeted in this
naturally assorted world. The only rejoinder is inclusion through inclusive education. Inclusive
education is a combination of values and didactic practices that allow each student to feel
respected, confident and safe so he or she can learn and develop to his or her full potential. To
make this possible the teacher’s role is of prime importance. This paper is an effort to ponder
upon the position of the teacher in handling diversity by understanding the notion of inclusion.
Key Words: Diversity; Inclusion; Inclusive Education; Education for All; Special Educator;
General Educator. 

Munde Vyankat Vishnupant


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 782/789

Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is collection of multi-hop wireless mobile nodes that
communicate with each other without centralized control or established infrastructure. The
wireless links in this network are highly error prone and can go down frequently due to mobility
of nodes, interference and less infrastructure. Therefore, routing in MANET is a critical task due
to highly dynamic environment. In recent years, several routing protocols have been proposed
for mobile ad hoc networks and prominent among them are DSR, AODV and TORA. This
research paper provides an overview of these protocols by presenting their characteristics,
functionality, benefits and limitations and then makes their comparative analysis so to analyze
their performance. The objective is to make observations about how the performance of these
protocols can be improved.

Bendsure Vijaykumar Vimalnath


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 790/793


Gunvant B. Sangale & Venkat Wagwad


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 794/800


Somnath V. Kirwale, N.B Pandhure & Sawdekar Jagdish


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 801/804


Kulvinder Singh


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 805/818

Iran’s strategic location made it an ideal gateway for economically rising India to access the resources and markets of Afghanistan, Central Asia, Turkey and Europe. Since the 1995 trilateral Memorandum of Understanding on trade and transit between India, Iran and Turkmenistan was signed, both New Delhi and Tehran have been part of several initiatives to facilitate trade with other Central Asian countries and beyond. One of the most difficult tasks facing the foreign policy makers in India is the requirement to balance the relations with Iran while enhancing proximity with the United States. This invariably raises questions over the importance of Iran. An ancient civilization, Iran lies at the crucial junction of South Asia and Middle East. It also links the Central Asian Republics and the Caucasus region to the Arabian Sea. Historically, it has influenced its neighbors, irrespective of the type of government in power. One of the oldest continuously inhabited civilizations, it forms a bridge between the Semitic world and the Indo-Aryan civilization of South Asia has had strong historical linkages with India. This paper looks at the strategic importance of Iran.

Keywords: Geo-Strategic, Iran, South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, India, Shia 

Mahesh Walle


Nov-Dec,2012, Vol - 1/3, Page - 819/824

 A mild and efficient method has been developed for the preparation of amidoalkyl naphthols from condensation of aldehydes with amides or urea and 2-naphthol in the presence of a catalytic amount of ionic liquid ([DSIM][HSO4]) under thermal solvent-free conditions. High yields, short reaction time, easy work-up and reusability of the catalyst are advantages of this procedure.
Keywords: Ionic liquid, Amidoalkyl naphthols, Solvent-free, One-pot, Multicomponent reaction.

  1. International Association for Teaching and Learning