FEB-MAR, 2014

Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2
Imapct Factor: -
ISSN: 2348-3083
Date: 04-Apr-2014

An International Peer Reviewed

Scholarly Research Journal for Humanity Sciences & English Language

Fredrick Mukoma Kalui , David Musyoki Mulwa & Peter O. Oira


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 168/180

The study was meant to examine the factors affecting borrowing amongst the employees of
public universities in Kenya. The locality of the study was Egerton University. The objectives
of the study were to identify the factors that influence bank borrowing and determine the
relationship between these factors and borrowing among the employees of Egerton
University. The population of the study was 1889 employees of Egerton University. A sample
of 318 employees was selected through systematic stratified random sampling. Questionnaire
was the main tool of data collection. The results of the study were presented through
descriptive statistics such as tables, pie charts, bar graphs, and histograms. Regression
analysis was used to determine the extent of relationship between dependent and independent
variables in the study. From the study, it was established that long repayment period is the
most important factor that influences the borrowing levels from commercial banks followed
by lack of guarantee. Interest rates were reported to have a moderate influence while gross
salary incomes lowly influence the employee borrowing from commercial banks. The study
observed that there exist a relationship between the current level of borrowing and the
factors that influence employee borrowing. The level of education influences the borrowing
levels from commercial bank. High interest rates significantly reduce the borrowing fromcommercial banks while high gross salary income and need for business start-up finance
increases the borrowing from commercial banks.
Key Words: Factors affecting borrowing, Commercial Banks

Jitender Kumar & Asha Chhabra


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 181/190

Adolescence is the most critical phase of an individual. It denotes the transitional stage from
childhood to adulthood marked by conspicuous physical, cognitive, emotional and social
changes. The inbuilt buffer existing in the society in the form of control and support from the
near and dear ones guide the adolescents to grow into a mature adult. However, in the recent
years, big changes have taken place in our traditional society owing to industrialization and
globalization. The impact is evident in the entire society, with no exception to adolescents.
The highly competitive world of today and the absence of traditional norms and support have
situations lead to unnecessary stress, anger issues and low self esteem resulting in, low
academic performances, and disruptive behaviour in school and at home. 



Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 191/196

In the globalized context and present scenario, students of Engineering and
Technology need a specific set of language skills for their success in education and career.
English for engineering students poses a challenge to them. Industries are also voicing their
concerns about the need for better communication skills among students of Engineering.
They require an ever increasing range of skills to maintain relevance with the global
environment of the new millennium. Communication is the pivot on which the globe revolves,
recognized by academia and industry.
Effective communication is an essential component for success, whether it is personal,
professional, and group, organization or individual levels. A recent newspaper report said
that: “Out of very hundred interviews, only five qualified for the employability. It is not that
were technically not sound but they lacked in communication skills.” These are as important
as school and college qualifications for youngsters aiming at a bright career. Students come
with a wide variety of abilities, attitudes, interests, ambitions and levels of motivation that
are effective for some students may be relatively ineffective for others. To balance these two
categories our University suggests CALL Lab in acquiring proficiency of the Language skills.
The object of this paper is to highlight the necessity of CALL Lab and make students ready
for campus placements. 

Chandrakant Borase


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 197/200

The present research study was mainly concerned with teaching attitude of the B.Ed. teacher
trainees and secondary school teachers. The sample consists of 60 B.Ed. teacher trainees and
60 secondary school teachers from Nasik. Data was collected by using Teacher Attitude
Inventory developed by Dr .S.P. Ahluwalia. The data was analyzed by using statistical
measures as mean, Standard Deviation and t-value.
Key words- Teaching attitude, Teacher trainees, Secondary school teachers. 

Indu Rathee


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 201/208

The present study aims at to find out whether the academic achievement motivation of
secondary school students of working mothers (WM) differ significantly from those of nonworking
mothers (NWM). The study further compared the academic achievement motivation
of secondary school students of working and non-working mothers on the basis of gender and
local. The sample of the study consisted of 200 secondary school students, 100 from
secondary schools situated in urban area and 100 from secondary schools situated in rural
area (50 male students of working mothers, 50 female students of working mothers, 50 male
students of non-working mothers & 50 female students of non-working mothers)of the age
group 13 to 15 years belonging to rural and urban areas selected randomly from different
educational institutions of district Sonipat, Haryana. Academic Achievement Motivation Test
constructed by Sharma, T. R. was administered to the selected sample to assess their
academic achievement motivation. The data so collected was analyzed statistically by
employing mean, SD and t-test. The study revealed there was significant differences between
the adolescent students of working and non working mothers on the measure of academic
achievement motivation.
Key Words: Academic Achievement Motivation, Working and Non-working mothers,
Secondary School Students. 

Jitender Kumar & Rani


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 209/226

The present study was an attempt to find out the difference in creative thinking abilities of
senior secondary school students in relation to their intelligence. A number of 150 male and
female respondents were taken as a sample on the basis of random sampling method.
Standardized questionnaires – Creative Thinking Abilities by Mehdi (1985) and Intelligence
Test by Jalota (1976) were used for the collection of the data. ‘t’ test was used to see the
significant difference. The findings of the study reveal that (i) It was found that superior
intelligent students and low intelligent students differ significantly on fluency superior
intelligent students are higher fluency than the low intelligent students. Similarly, superior
intelligent students and low intelligent students differ significantly on flexibility too.
However, there is no significant difference found between superior intelligent students and
low intelligent students regarding originality and creativity. It shows that originality and
creativity are equally distributed between superior intelligent students and low intelligent
students (ii) It was found that there is no significant difference between Average intelligent
students and low intelligence students regarding all dimensions of creativity. It shows that all
dimensions of creativity are equally distributed between Average intelligent students and low
intelligent students; (iii) It was found that there is a significant difference between superior
intelligent students regarding flexibility and creativity. It shows that superior intelligent
students having more flexibility than Average intelligent students. However, there is no
significant difference found superior intelligent students and Average intelligent studentsregarding fluency and originality. It shows that fluency and originality are equally
distributed between superior intelligent students and average intelligent students.
Key words: Creativity, intelligence, senior secondary school students.

Mridula Singh


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 227/236

 Cooperative learning method is an instructional technique, in which positive interdependence
among learners is involved. Cooperation refers primarily to small groups of students working
together to achieve a common goal. In the present study the investigator used a self
instructional package of cooperative learning of subject science. The researcher taught
through cooperative learning technique to the students of class VIIIth through this technique
up to twelve weeks. After that it was examined that is there any change in the creative
behavior of the students. The 500 students of class VIIIth of different cities of U.P. constitute
the sample of the study. For the purpose of data collection a self constructed tool of creativity
and verbal and nonverbal test of creativity of Baquer Mehdi is used. The result shows that
there was a significant difference in the creative behavior of the students. Further there was
not a significant difference on the creative behavior of boys / girls and rural / urban students.

Geeta R. Thakur & Bijoy K Thomas


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 237/243

Civic Literacy is the knowledge of how to actively participate and initiate change in
your community and the greater society. Civic literacy means participating effectively in civic
life through knowing how to stay informed and understanding governmental processes,
exercising the rights and obligations of citizenship at local, state, national and global levels,
understanding the local and global implications of civic decisions and acting responsibly
with the interests of the larger community in mind.
This paper describes the development of BGCG based on the above mentioned
concept. This game is developed to promote civic literacy among students. The demands and
inputs of learner are included during the development of game i.e. curiosity, twists,
motivation in the form of rewards and punishments and opportunities for decision making.
While playing BGCG, the learners play to get higher civic index to become the best citizen of
their country. The items were prepared based on civic indicators i.e., regular voting, regular
volunteering, protesting, campaign contribution etc. The game is recommended as
appropriate cost effective learning tool for developing civic responsibilities and civic
literacy. It is helpful to create positive attitude towards civic responsibilities and create civic
awareness among students even in the absence of required real experiences.
Keywords: civic literacy, citizenship, boardgame 

Suruchi & Surender Singh Rana


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 244/252

A better adjusted and satisfied teacher plays a vital role in the development of students and
subsequently the society. The focus of this study is to compare the adjustment of secondary
school teachers working in government and private schools. The variables considered in this
study are personal, professional and social adjustment of teachers. Normative survey
research method is used on a sample of 200 secondary school teachers which are selected
from ten schools based on simple random sampling method. Present study is an attempt to
find out how well the teachers are adjusted to their academic and general environment of
institution, to their professional relationships, to their financial and job satisfaction and their
personal, socio-psycho-physical adjustment. Based on the responses given by government
and private school teachers on S. K. Mangal’s TAI inventory, it is found that a significant
difference exists in the personal, professional and social adjustment of studied teachers. The
study is useful to understand the effect of job security, ample opportunities, financial support
and cordial work environment on the work efficiency, physical, mental and social health of
KEY WORDS: Personal adjustment, Professional adjustment, Social adjustment, TAI. 



Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 253/256

Sensibility is, particularly, capacity to respond to aesthetic and emotional stimuli. The
stories written or read inadvertently make us perceive the psyche of both the writer and the
characters created by the writer. Portraying the story of a woman\'s search for strength and
independence; Anita Nair’s ‘Ladies Coupe’ focuses on the latent strengths which every
individual has. Though ladies do not disclose their life stories to each other in journeys, the
protagonist, Akhila gets to know her fellow travelers in the intimate atmosphere of the ladies
coupé which she shares with five other women, Janaki, Margaret Shanti, Prabha Devi,
Sheela, and Marikolanthu in her long train journey to Kanyakumari. This paper makes an
effort in asserting the very nature of Indian Women; sharing experiences by emphasizing the
Indian sensibility of women in identifying themselves part of the Indian tradition and culture. 

Minakshi Biswal


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 257/264

The present situation calls for Quality Education. There are several proposal for achieving
quality in education system. Till today we are not able to get the standard of quality
education as there are many challenges to attain these particular criteria. Here the
researcher explains the conditions for quality education and proves that Sri Sathya Sai
School is one of the best schools to provide quality education.
Key words: Quality, School System, Sri Sathya Sai School, Vidya. 

Mohd Zubair Kales


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 265/279

Marriage is a sacred institution which binds both the woman and man in a pious relation. It
gives this relation meaning. Marriage with in the same caste means that both the boy and girl
belong to the same community. Inter -caste marriage means girl and boy are from different
castes where one member belongs to lower caste. The caste, creed and culture are the three
most important elements, which are kept on the high priority list. For years, Indians had an
orthodox mindset. They could not imagine inter -caste marriages.
They had a conception that marriages are only possible in the same caste and community.
Talking about inter- caste and inter- religious marriages in India was a taboo for most
people in the earlier days. However, with time, things changed and inter- caste marriage also
became a part of the society. Inter- caste marriages are regarded as the most important
social customs and hence, were viewed as the best means to remove the barrier of castesystem.
When God created men and women, he has not assigned any caste on them. So, how
can the human beings divide God s created world into castes and communities.
Customs and religious practised were so strict and merciless that even sometimes the boy and
girl were hacked to death by their parents due to the pressures from the society. However,
with time things changed and inter- caste marriage also became a part of the society. Today,
in Indian society, though we can see inter- caste marriages, but mostly it is the part of the city
culture. The rural parts of the country still have a long way to go 

Vidyadevi Patil


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 280/285

In this paper we have tried to explain different technologies used in delivery of E-learning. Elearning
gives an opportunity to the learner to complete his/her education/sessions easily and
conveniently. It is a very flexible and self paced method of education.E-learning is a
worldwide service and it motivates adults to learn. The urge to learn can be a result of desire
for recognition, self esteem, natural curiosity, enhance the self confidence and the
opportunity to self actualize which itself is a learning at its core. E- learning allows a needful
based learning. The paper presented throws light on the technologies used for delivering Elearning.
Learners are now a day’s more acquainted with the different technologies
developed. This paper tries to explain the technology used for delivering E-learning. 

Sumit Goklaney


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 286/292

Information technology plays vital role in the development of any industry through reducing
geographical barriers. Indian Banking sector has been showing greater emphases on the
techno and innovation since the reforms. The Indian banking sector has undergone
noteworthy transformation from local braking to anywhere-anytime banking with the
implementation of technology. Over the past couple of years, a huge growth has been
registered in the number of transaction done through electronic devices. India banks have
increased number of technological products like Net Banking, Mobile Banking Online
Shipping, Ticket Booking , Bill Payment and Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) etc. The
present study is an attempt to analyze the technological deveined in Indian banking sector.
Keywords: Technology, mobile Banking ,ATMs. Net Banking Electronic Fund Transfer. 

D. B. Bagul


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 287/292

Today\'s working climate demands a great deal of commitment and effort from Employees, who in turn naturally expect a great deal more from their Employers. Performance Appraisal must be seen as an intrinsic part of a Manager\'s responsibility and not an unwelcome and time-consuming addition to them. It is about improving performance and ultimate effectiveness. Performance Appraisal is a systematic means of ensuring that Superiors and their staff meet regularly to discuss past and present performance issues and to agree what future is appropriate on both sides. This meeting should be based on clear and mutual understanding of the job in question and the standards and outcomes, which are a part of it. In normal circumstances, Employees should be appraised by their immediate Superiors on one to one basis .Often the distinction between Appraiser & Appraise .Assessment concerns itself only with the past and the present . The staff is being appraised when they are encouraged to look ahead to improve effectiveness, utilize strengths, redress weaknesses and examine how potentials and aspirations should match up. It should also be understood that pushing a previously prepared report across and desk Cursorily inviting comments, and expecting it to be neatly signed by the Employee is not Appraisal- this is merely a form filling exercise which achieves little in terms of giving staff any Positive guidance and motivation. In SEMCO ELECTRIC PVT LTD, Chakan, my research was a "Study of Employee\'s Performance Appraisal System" So to improve the condition it is necessary to review the performance of Employees. In this research, I had to study the current Performance Appraisal system at SEMCO & check the effectiveness of current Appraisal system. (2013)
Keywords: Performance‚ Appraisal‚ Management by objectives (MBO)‚ Superior‚ Subordinate‚ Peer‚ Review‚ Employment‚ 360o‚ Appraisal system. 

Ramarcha Prasad Pandey


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 1015/1024

A profession is not simply a collection of individuals who get a living for themselves by the same kind of work. Nor it is merely a group which is organized exclusively for the economic protection. A profession is characterized by a sufficiently long period of academic training; an organized body of knowledge on which the undertaking is based; an appropriate duration of formal and rigorous professional training with practical experience in the field and a code of professional ethics which bind sits members into a fraternity and Ethics means’ science of morals; moral principles or code’ Ethics is a collection of moral standards by which each person should be guided in their private and professional life. It tells us right from wrong, and how to live moral lives. The teaching profession, as many others, has its own code of ethics, which describes the process of grading students and teacher\'s behavior in the classroom as well as outside the premises of the institution. It is one of few professions which evaluate the totality of behavior of an individual and its potential influence on others. The teacher\'s code of ethics comprises his/her duties, responsibilities, attitude, honesty, and most of all - fairness. One can become a better teacher by becoming a better human being. National Education Association, USA formulates certain principles which deserve reflection and careful consideration

Ramarcha Prasad Pandey,


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 293/296

 Education plays a significant role in the life of a nation. The character and quality of the people greatly depend on the education that is imparted to them at different levels. Knowledge and wisdom have always been regarded as the highest virtues of man. The present century is undergoing a major revolutionary change where technology has intervened in all aspects of life. Education is no exception to be adversely affected by the intervention of technology and it has also seen many appropriate changes that has brought a totally new look to the concept of education in the modern times. With the technologically advanced world, the teacher should also keep pace and be aware of the new technologies and the way to integrate them in education so as to enhance learning in their students which is the major aim of education. Teachers of all level of education should be able to incorporate new technologies and impart their lessons through latest trends that will affect at the cognitive domain of the learner to a greater extent. This is the age of knowledge management where teacher is not only a person or medium to transfer knowledge but teacher acts as a manager to manage properly his content by integrating new technologies in his methodology. Management includes all the aspects from planning to communicate to executing the same concept in a better manner and with a new style every time. Therefore, there is a need to change the definition and demands of the teacher and the learner. There is a need to educate them so that they get familiar with the new technologies of the market and incorporate them in their teaching to get a holistic approach. Today’s society has accepted new technologies for fast development and progress due to global demand and competition. New technologies like personal computers, World Wide Web, mobile phones, satellites and internet are all helping us in gathering and dissemination of information globally. Higher education is an important form of investment in human resource development. Multimedia technology is found to be a very useful tool in interaction and communication to multi-language, multimedia communities. The growth of colleges from independence to date is 700 to 20,700 and universities from 25 to 435 and student enrolment from 1.00 lack to 1.6 crore. The exponential growth of institutions is still unable to cope with the demand for education by the country’s youth. To achieve the targets set by planning commission 2007 and national knowledge commission, we are bound to use new technologies to impart education to each and every one who desires to have access to higher education. Researches done in education show that integration of modern technologies in education have the following advantages : it motivates student to learn, improves collaborative learning helps in understanding the subject, helps in collaborate learning, provides greater understanding, improves designing skills, develops critical thinking and helps in social interactions. Information technology is defined in oxfordadvanced learner’s as the study or use of electronic equipment especially computers for storing, analyzing and handling information and communication technologies in the process of sending, receiving and exchanging information. According to UNESCO ‘ICT is a scientific, technological and engineering discipline used in handling information, its application and association with social, economical and cultural matters. With the current technological infrastructure this exchange can occur from anywhere any time without any constraints of time and space. The relatively recent change from the term information technology (IT) to information and communication technology (ICT) reflects the accelerated pattern in which modern technology has impacted teaching. ICT covers not just computer but any technology involved in communication such as UNESCO defines, ‘informatics as the science dealing with the design, realization, evaluation, use and maintenance of informatin processing systems. Including hardware, software, organizational and human aspects and the industrial, commercial, governmental and political implications of these. In other words ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device like software, CD Rom, the Internet, television and radio, image capturing devices including still and video cameras, sensing, data logging control application, e-content, e-books and multimedia representations. Thus ICT are the computing and communicating facilities and features that support teaching, learning, and a range of activities in education. It has the essence of transforming information effectively anywhere using the latest modes of technology like computers in synchronous and asynchronous environment that create greater access to information and communication narrow down the gap between the information giants of haves and haves not. Multimedia can mean practically anything from a computer that happens to be equipped with a pair of speakers to a complex program capable of driving a laser disc or DVD players and multiple screens and high frequency quality sound Multimedia especially with a video projector can provide real impact in a class room as your computer will become a flexible blackboard. Many researches have proved that ICT integration is a powerful tool, which can be employed for its flexibility, cost effectiveness to achieve various goals of education. The use of ICT has amicably a transformative potential in students, this is still found only in isolated pockets of innovations and is associated with only a few enthusiastic institutions and individuals what do information and communication technologies, specifically computers and the internet, offer that conventional teaching does not? Each individual is unique with unique needs and a unique way of learning. Each is therefore, entitled to an individualized way of learning.

Aarti Sharma


Feb-Mar,2014, Vol - 1/2, Page - 297/301


  1. International Association for Teaching and Learning