APR-MAY, 2014

Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3
Imapct Factor: -
ISSN: 2348-3083
Date: 04-Jun-2014

An International Peer Reviewed

Scholarly Research Journal for Humanity Sciences & English Language

David Musyoki Mulwa , Fredrick Mukoma Kalui & Makori, Linet Nyambeki


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 293/307

The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting adoption of e-learning
in public secondary schools in Makadara District, Nairobi County. The specific objectives of
the study were to establish the influence of ICT infrastructure and e-learning curricula and
design on the adoption of e-learning in public schools in Makadara district, Nairobi County.
It was also aimed at examining the effect of teacher’s readiness and teachers’ ICT skills on
the adoption of e-learning in public schools in Makadara District, Nairobi County. The study
adopted a survey research design. The study targeted all the head teachers, deputy head
teachers and teachers of all public secondary schools in Makadara District. The target
population was 195 and a sample of 98 was sampled for the study. Data was collected using a
questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used to analyze the study
variables of ICT infrastructure, curricula, teacher readiness, teacher ICT skills and adoption
of e-learning. The study established that most schools had low investment in ICT
infrastructure due high costs of computer hardware, software and related accessories. The
adoption of e-learning implementations has resulted in the need for development of new skills
and competencies among teachers as most teachers who have been teaching in traditional
manners are not technologically literate and sometimes may even resist because of the worry
about losing their jobs if e-learning is implemented, because of their inadequate skills. The
factors affecting the adoption of e-learning significantly influenced the adoption of e-learning
and external factors such as the government policies, financial policies and human
development. The study recommends that there is need for schools to have e-learning
infrastructure included in the financial plans to cater for maintenance and expansion of theICT infrastructure and the acquisition and maintenance and training of teachers and technical
staff, e-learning curricula may need to be designed in such a way that is relevant in the quality
of information with the outside world because students will use different resources besides
their instructor, teachers need to acquire necessary knowledge and skills that allows them to
shift from traditional teaching experiences to an e-learning teaching style hence school
official need to avail adequate technical support at the beginning of the adoption of elearning

Asha Chhabra


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 308/317

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become commonplace entities in all
aspects of life. Across the past twenty years the use of ICT has fundamentally changed the
practices and procedures of nearly all forms of endeavor within business and governance.
Education is a very socially oriented activity and quality education has traditionally been
associated with strong teachers having high degrees of personal contact with learners. The
use of ICT in education lends itself to more student-centered learning settings. But with the
world moving rapidly into digital media and information, the role of ICT in education is
becoming more and more important and this importance will continue to grow and develop in
the 21st century.. ICT helps in improving the quality of education stating that information and
communication technology is an important instrument that can transfer the present isolated,
teacher- centered and book-centered learning environment into a student –centered
environment. ICT can change the traditional concept of learning process and the components
of ICT should be integrated in the education program me in such a way that teaching should
be enabled to face the new demands and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education
at all levels in both formal and non-formal settings. Thus, we must accept the new paradigm
and technology in teaching learning process. Educational institutions need to develop
strategies, plan to improve teaching-learning process and ensure that all teachers are well
prepared to use the new tools for learning. The emergence of the knowledge-based society is
changing the global status of education .Now; it is the time to develop a new knowledge-based
global society. In developing countries like India, there are many untrained teachers in thisarea. The new ICT would be able to reach these teachers and can provide quality education
all around the globe.
Key words: Information, Communication Technology, Paradigm , Teacher Education

Mohd Zubair Kales


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 318/344

Distance education has gained popularity all over the world a a means of extending
education to the masses. The wide spread usage for higher education witnessed the
development of distance education system. The system has been recognized as a viable
alternative system of education. During the last two decades, the system had significant
impact in the system of education in the developing as well as developed countries because of
its utility, higher effectiveness, high productivity, and greater flexibility in the scheme.
Distance education therefore, is a method of imparting knowledge, skills and attitudes, which
is rationalized by the application of division of labour, extensive use of technical media,
especially for the purpose of reproducing higher quality teaching material, which makes it
possible to instruct large number of students at the same time wherever they live. In nutshell
distance education is an industrialized form of teaching learning.
On the other hand, Indira Gandhi national Open University was established at the central
level in 20th Sep, 1985, with the objectives of providing flexible, innovative and cost effective
higher education, to all segments of the society, irrespective of any difference. It helps the
country in removing imbalance which have existed in the formal education i.e. enrolment of
male students vis-à-vis female students, rural as well as urban development, vocational
education as well as theoretical education. Thus, in other words its main task is to fulfill
academic, social and economic objectives.
Establishment of Indira Gandhi national Open University Regional centre, Jammu in 1998 is
one step forward in the field of distance education. This Regional Centre with 26 study centers
throughout Jammu region is also playing an important role in imparting higher education to
al large population.
Hence, it can be summarized that the institution of distance education have been playing an
important role by providing education to all sections of society, especially the group of‘people’ residing in remote, hilly and far flung areas of Jammu through its distance mode of
Key Words: Distance Education, IGNOU Programmes, Jammu Regional Centre

Sohrab Ali & Mira Mishra


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 345/354

The fast paced scientific and technological developments has transformed the whole world
into a global village. Global warming, ozone depletion, oil spills, nuclear energy etc have
forced the thinkers across the world to make a reform in the education at all levels. We come
across dilemmatic situation in our everyday life which requires us to make judicious use of
knowledge, solve problems, make unbiased decisions. In order to subsist these challenges
better we need to prepare the future citizen who can make use of their higher order cognitive
skills like problem solving, decision making, critical thinking, rational thinking etc in an
implicit way. This requires paradigm shift in teaching- learning technique form presiding
algorithmic lower order cognitive skills to higher order cognitive skills in concurrent
educational system. This paper attempts to throw light on the role of teachers in the promotion
of higher order cognitive skills into the class room. The teaching strategies used for the
promotion of higher order cognitive skills are discussed along with the challenges.
Key words: higher order cognitive skills, lower order cognitive skills, problem solving,
teaching strategies 

Shazia Tabasum & G. R. Rathod


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 355/366

 differences between these two sexes-when we use the word gender , however we are going
beyond anatomical/biological differences between male and female to their socially
constituted roles and status. For example ,when one uses the word feminity the social
expectations of feminine qualities may be nurturing , caring , delicate, irrational initiative,
submission ,non-aggression etc. "The word gender" is often used as a synonym for "sex". Sex,
refers to biological characteristics and features that make someone female or male. Gender
has also been misused as a synonym for "women" or "female". For the present study, Jammu
and Kashmir is chosen as unit of the study. The state of Jammu and Kashmir is one of the
largest states of the India. It lies between 32o-15’ and 37o-05’ North latitude and 72o-35’ and
83o-20’ East longitude. The area of Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir is 101387sq.k m and
it comprises three natural regions viz., Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. Various Data sources
primarily include Census of India 2011 and supplemented with State Digest of Statistics and
other published work wherever necessary. A most evident reflection of gender discrimination
can been seen at the alarming decline rate in sex ratio,be it at the national level or to the
matter the J&K state.
In case of J&K state, as depicted from various surveys, reports and census, gender
inequality is clearly a matter of concern. Taking education as a starting point, there is nearly
27% gap between males and females in case of literacy rate. It clearly reflects the attitude of
the society towards female education. Although, the literacy rate of education of females has
increased from 9.28% to 49.12%, yet it is evident that gender gap has increased from 17.47
to 27.63. One of the greatest concern, so far as gender discrimination is concerned is that of
male-female sex ratio. J&K is categorized in those states which have the worst sex ratio.
Despite several steps taken state government or non-government organizations , it seems that
they have failed to curb this social menace. J&K has shown 82 points decrease in census 2011
to 883.

Ritu Sharma


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 367/372

The present investigation was carried out on a girl name Harshita who has been identified
with learning disability. She is presently studying at ‘Udaan’ a school for the special children
in Shimla. The girl was brought to this special school from the normal school where she was
studying earlier when the teachers and parents found it difficult to teach the child with other
normal children. The learning disability the child faces is in executive functioning i.e. she
forgets what she has memorized. When I met her I was taken away by her sweet and innocent
ways. She is attentive and responsible but the only problem is that she forgets within minutes
of having learnt something.
Key words : learning disability, executive functioning, remedial teaching 

Shivani Rawat


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 373/380

The aim of the present investigation was to assess the Health Related Quality of Life in
People Exercising in the Green and Indoors. For the purpose of the study fifty subjects (50
female) who exercise in the green and indoors were selected. The age group of the subject
ranged from 30 to 50 years. The data was collected by administering questionnaire SF-36
developed by Ware and Sherbourne. In order to analyze the data a detailed descriptive
statistics was applied and the level of significance was set at 0.05. The result of the study
indicates that there was a significant difference obtained on the Health Related Quality of Life
between people exercising in the green (outdoors) and indoors and the outdoor people had a
higher score in Health Related Quality of Life and as well as in all the subscales of Health
Related Quality of Life. 

Urvashi Marak


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 381/389

Higher Education generally refers to education in post higher secondary institutions colleges
and universities. It is widely recognised that Higher Education can play a vital role in the
development process of a country. India has encountered a great challenge in improving its
higher education. Teaching is an art and skill by dint of which a teacher can transfer
knowledge to the students in an efficient and effective manner. A successful teacher is required
to be equipped with the characteristics like mastery of subject matter, professional training,
sound physical and mental health, devotion and dedication to this profession. Teachers work
‘in\\\' a system, whereas the Head of an institute works ‘on\\\' the system and continuously
improves the Quality of higher education in rural areas with the help of teachers. Students
study and learn ‘in\\\' a system, and the teachers have to continuously work ‘on\\\' the system to
improve the teaching Quality especially for rural mass. Involvement in education for rural
mass is what makes learning activities a pleasure. Therefore, in this paper an attempt has
been made to discuss the role of the teacher in rural higher education and how it contributes
for the betterment of the same for each of us. 

Prerana Gautam


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 390/399

With the advancement of technology, educators are showing an increased interest in ICT and
internet for their teaching and learning. Web 2.0 Technology is the power full tool which has
shifted the education system from traditional teaching concepts to student centred teaching
environment. Day by day these applications are being very common and developed to increase
the usage flexibility of web technology. Web 2.0 offered to modern teaching and learning
system with effective activities and social interactions. To access the information complex
computer technical knowledge or design technology is not essential. Web2.0 provides such a
platform where educators write about their own experiences and ideas related to a course
topic and can be used to develop learning communities for teacher preparation to improve
student engagement. This paper will discuss about the Web 2.0 - a new approach of ICT in
teacher education with their undefined characteristics.
Keywords - Teacher Education, , Social Interaction, Teacher preparation. 

Bikramaditya Ghosh & Padma Srinivasan


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 400/404

The first and largest securities market in India, the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) was
established in 1875 as the Native Share and Stock Brokers\\\' Association.1 BSE-100 was
launched in January 03, 1989 and was previously known as the BSE National Index . The base
year for this index is 1983-84 with base index value fixed at 100 points. BSE-100 was
launched on full market capitalization method and shifted to Free-Float methodology effective
from April 5, 2004. The Index has 100 companies with varying weightages. BSE calculates a
dollar-linked value of SENSEX called Dollex series of BSE indices. 2BSE 100 is a broad based
Index. It is well used for a lot of constructive work for Analysts as well as Researchers. This
study is to find, whether BSE 100 moves in line with technical methods (valuation or market
levels) or not. Here the researcher has taken two independent variables such as adjusted close
& P/E against Market Capitalization. The principal aim is to find out relation among these
variables and derive a clear way out from this long awaited solution. Multiple Factor Analysis
is used to study the movements & possible correlations.
Key Words:- P/E, Sentiment, Confidence, Correlation, Adjusted Close 

Priya Khurana & Bhaskar Mohan Kandpal


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 405/410

Giftedness in science has existed in classrooms and it poses special demands on the
science teachers. To address major challenges of identifying and nurturing gifted and
talented in science, the teachers need to be equipped with adequate strategies to create
suitable learning environment. They need to be actively involved in making science relevant
and challenging for their learners. A lot of support is thus expected from teacher education
programmes so as to ensure that the teachers feel proficient enough to meet the diverse
learning needs of the gifted, with responsibility. This paper intends to critically look at the
teacher education programmes with special reference to exploring possibilities and
opportunities provided to future teachers in order to endow them in promoting gifted and
talented in science. Hence, different aspects of teacher education programmes of two central
universities in India and one state university are thoroughly examined. Investigation reveals
that promoting and sustaining giftedness in classrooms does not form an inclusive part of the
total teacher preparation programmes and that most of the sensitization of future teachers
depend upon the teacher educators’ own initiation.
Key Words: gifted, science, teachers & teacher education 

Aarti Pasricha


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 411/422


Mrutyunjaya Mishra


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 418/424

The Census of India (2011) estimates that the total number of disabled population is 26,810,557 which indicates that they need Education, Training and Rehabilitative Services. The manpower development in the area of special education and rehabilitation is regulated by Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI), a statutory body under Ministry of Social justice & Empowerment. The present strength of personnel and Professionals in the field of Special Education and Rehabilitation is 67738 (RCI, 2011). The disabilities for which manpower development programme are conducted in different categories ranging from certificate to Master Degree in Regular, Distance and Online mode are Hearing Impairment, Mental Retardation, Visual Impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Learning Disability, Loco-Motor Impairment and Neurogenic Disorder, Speech and Hearing, Community Based Rehabilitation, Multiple disabilities and others. In a total RCI conducts 60 different courses in regular mode and 8 courses in distance mode. There is a need of focusing new courses in the area of Special Education and Rehabilitation including more emerging disability and evidence based practices. The courses which are needed in the present context are superspecialised and employment oriented. The training centers which are imparting training for manpower development are also concentrated to certificate and diploma level. As Rashtriya Ucchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) is going to be implemented at higher education level, more focused programme has to be designed for smooth inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in University level institutions. 

D. B. Bagul


Apr-May,2014, Vol - 1/3, Page - 424/429

Managing human resources in today\'s dynamic environment is becoming more and more complex as well as important. Recognition of people as a valuable resource in the organization has led to increases trends in Employee maintenance, job security, etc. Research deals with "Performance Appraisal" as carried out in LARSEN AND TOUBRO (EWAC ALLOYS LIMITED). In this report, I have studied & evaluated the performance appraisal process as it is carried out in the company. The first section of paper deals with a detailed company profile. It includes the company\'s history, its activities and operations, organizational structure, etc. This section attempts to give detailed information about the company and the nature of its functioning. The second section deals of researchwith performance appraisal. In this section, I have given a brief conceptual explanation of performance appraisal. It contains the definition, process and significance of performance appraisal.
In the third section of my research, I have conducted a research study to evaluate the performance management system L & T (EW AC). This section also contains my findings, conclusions, suggestions and feedback. Keywords: Performance, appraisal, year, training, development, senior, Superior, Subordinate 

  1. International Association for Teaching and Learning