-,2012, Vol - /
Imapct Factor:
ISSN: 2278 – 8808
Date: 01-Aug-2012

An International Peer Reviewed

Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies

Angad Singh

Blending ICT in Teacher Education

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 In this paper a humble effort has been made to emphasize the importance
of ICTs in teacher education programmes especially for Indian context.
Former Hon’ble President of India Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam once said “ If a
country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I
strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a
difference. They are the Father, The Mother and the Teacher.” This great
opinion significantly justifies the importance of a teacher in any
educational system.
Key Words:- ICT, Teacher Education



-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0


Anoj Raj

Teacher Training Curriculum Design: Development and Implementation

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Today’s political, social, demographic, economic, cultural and
technological realities have forced University to reflect on the mission and
organization of education and these realities have altered work and their
occupational structure. Our education system has to change in rhythm with
changing needs of individual if it is to be dynamic and functional. It is
challenge for our primary and secondary education and need of skillful
teachers because teacher is the maker of man (Sir John Adams), so there is
a need to bring teacher training programs into line with the changes
affecting the system as a whole, in order to adapt them to the new realities
that will define the world of education in coming years.
Key Words: Teacher Education, Curriculum Development

Archana S.Gosavi & Suvarna K.Bhujbal

Study of an effectiveness of Innovative teaching methodology for stress free education at Teacher Education College

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Today’s world is world of Modernization Globalization. In this world each and every person
from child to old aged enter in a rat race of competition and tries to prove his identity.
It is a need of time to create, able, creative, intellectual young generation which will lead
the country towards success.
But because of too much expectations of Parents too much pressure of studies & network
of competition many of students get stressed and most of them commit suicide. The question
arise who is responsible for such situation ? The answer will be present system of Education.
A changes need to be brought to minimize the stress & get better result For that as a teacher
we have to use innovative method should be planned while teaching.
An experiment is carried out by me in teacher education college in which power point
presentation is used and students participation through group interaction is done by making
students learning enjoyable and stress free. This method got a good feedback by many students
which proved its effectiveness.
This if such innovative method are used for teaching then the students intellectual and self
confidence will increase & they will use to knowledge attained by them for their own progress &
ultimately for the progress of nation or world
Key Words: innovative teaching, stress, teacher education

Arpeeta Bhatia

Understanding Pre-service Teachers’ Attitudes towards Teaching Profession to build Effective, Affective and Reflective Teachers’ for tomorrow’s learners – A Futuristic Challenge in Teacher Education

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 The whole identity of the preservice teacher as a budding teacher depends
on his/her attitude towards teaching profession. Teachers’ attitudes are
important because they would determine the course of action the
preservice teacher would take in her teaching journey. This study explores
pre-service teachers’ motivation for entering teaching profession and their
attitude towards teaching profession. A total of 38 pre-service teachers
completed a two-part questionnaire exploring their motivations for
becoming teachers & their attitude towards teaching profession. The study
reveals that most of the respondents have taken up teaching because they
enjoy interacting with children and are keen to be humanistic in their
teacher-taught interactions, then it is to be taken into account that why
teachers don’t continue to mirror similar attitudes and what action plan
can be taken to create passionate & committed teachers. The final part
discusses the implications for the continual enhancement of teacher
education programmes to build Effective, Affective and Reflective
Teachers’ for tomorrow’s learners.

Asawari Bhave & Jayashree Ramanathan

G.A.M.E. Module – An Effective Approach to Learning

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Teachers mould the young minds who are the future citizens of our
country. Therefore it is very essential that the objective of the B.Ed
program should be to equip student teachers with proper skills and
attitudes necessary to carry out this task. A practice which we have
implemented and tried to find out its effectiveness is the G.A.M.E Model.

Ashutosh Tiwari

Inclusive Education and Teacher Education

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Children in special schools were seen as geographically and socially segregated
from their peers, and the initial movement to locationally integrate these students
in mainstream schools (‘integration’) shifted to one where the whole school was
encouraged to become more adaptable and inclusive in its day-to-day educational
practices for all students (‘inclusive education’). Pedagogy in particular was
highlighted as the key to meeting all students’ educational needs by making the
curriculum flexible, and so more accessible. teaching methods which can make
curriculum accessible to children with disabilities can also make learning
accessible to all students (Ainscow, 2005; Ainscow, 1991), a teacher or school
principal is well on the way to improving the overall quality of their school.
Key Words:- Inclusion Education, Teacher Education

Madhumita Ghosh & Ashwini Wadegaonkar

Challenges in Teacher Education through Distance Mode

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 The Government have set up a number of distance education institutions to make
access to higher education to a large number of both aspiring students and teachers.
Undoubtedly, Distance Education has today emerged as a very significant tool in
providing education. This method has evolved over the years to reach a much wider
group of students and community to include them in the generation of information
power. Knowledge, today, can be provided in so many ways and Distance Education
fits in very well to cater to this increasing need which is across the nation. Information
Technology has enhanced the power of this mode of education and has over a period
of time to fill the gap between the "distance" that exists between students and
Distance education has also undergone a tremendous change – paper, pen toe-mode.
This paper attempts to bring out why these types of institutions are imperative if the
country has to achieve the desired Gross Enrolment and to deal with shortage of
qualified teachers and a strong discrimination against students and teachers graduating
from such mode of education and their recruitment. So the challenge is how to resolve
the issues without diluting quality of education.
Key words: Experiences, Challenges, Teacher Education, Distance Learning

Anita M. Belapurkar & Smita V. Phatak

Knowledge and attitude about Inclusive Education of school teachers: A study

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Success of Inclusive Education depends on various factors, of which
teacher is the most important factor. For becoming a competent and
successful Inclusive teacher, it is necessary to have required knowledge,
skills, democratic attitude, positive attitude and an attitude of collaboration
and networking.
The present study examined knowledge and attitude of school teachers in
urban and rural Pune about school teachers. 300 school teachers were
selected from various schools from urban and rural Pune, Maharashtra.
The tools used are Attitude scale for inclusion and knowledge test on
The results indicate overall positive attitude ofschool teachers towards
inclusive education and the knowledge level of school teachers about
inclusive education are significantly low. Their concept of inclusive
education is unclear. They are not clear about Government policies and
planning, how to identify different abilities in children, and what remedial
treatment can be given to them.



-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0


Mangala R. Chinchore

Challenges to Education: Perspectives and Prospects

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0




-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0


Daware Surendra J. & Purude Ashwini M.

Challenges before Teachers in the era of Globalization

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 The age of globalization has brought in a sea change in the field of education. It has brought new
challenges before the teachers, students and society. Today foreign universities are eager to
collaborate with the Indian universities. The number of qualified teachers is less as compared to
students. Another issue is of the use of ICT in teaching and learning. Even the criterion of
qualifying teachers is a matter of debate. Teachers need to motivate students for research
oriented study. The quality of research needs to be under examination. The higher education
needs to put in efforts to reach upto the mark in the world of competition. The challenges are to
be met with a joint effort on the part of the government, students and teachers which will result
in a pleasant picture of the society and consequently the nation itself.
Keywords: Globalization, Higher education, GATS [General Agreement on Trade in Services]

Vijay Dhamane

Development of Teacher Education Curriculum and Challenges in Transaction

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 “People in India have been slow to recognize that education is a
profession for which intensive preparation is necessary as it is in any
other profession!” So to prepare competent teachers for the modern
India, the curriculum should be complete and competent. Regarding
this issue this study focuses on the curriculum development and
challenges in transaction of Teacher Education Programme.
Teacher Education refers to the policies and procedures designed to
equip prospective teachers with knowledge, attitudes behavirous and
skills which they require to perform. So while designing a curriculum
of Teacher Education Programme the Feedback and expectation of
concerns be considered. The national aspiration and need, cultural and
social change should be reflected through curriculum. This study
focuses on Teacher Education curriculum design and challenges during

Jyoti A. Dhanke

Upcoming challenges and issues related to Technology and E-learning in Teacher Education

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 While e-learning (electronic learning) technologies are continuously developing,
there are number of emerging issues and challenges that have significant impact on elearning
teacher education. E-learning technologies comprise all forms of electronically
supported learning and teaching. The information and communication systems, whether
network learning or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process. The
term will still most likely be utilized to reference out-of-classroom and in-classroom
educational experiences via technology, even as advances continue in regard to devices
and curriculum. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video
tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes
media in the form of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio. This paper
reports on challenges and issues which have been facing in technology and e-learning in
teacher education. It includes the facts that by making presentation of outlining of
technology and e-learning issues are important in teacher education.
Keywords: ICT, e-learning, teacher education

Dhananjai Yadav

Managing Constructive Learning through ICT Empowered Teaching

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 The learners can build knowledge actively through the
interactions with environmental stimuli. Constructive learning
incorporates a learning process wherein the learner gains his own
conclusions through the creative aid of the teacher as a facilitator. The
teacher must ask open-ended questions and leaving time to allow the
students to think and analyze a response, based on their experiences and
personal inquiry. Open-ended questions and critical thinking encourage
students to seek more than just a simple response or basic facts and
incorporate the justification and defense of their organized thoughts. This
leads to challenging other hypotheses, defending their own, and
supporting real-world situations with abstract supporting data.



-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0



Research Interest of Novice Teacher Educators: A study

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 This research is intended to study the Research Interestof novice
teacher educators. The objectives of the study were to study the Research
Interestof novice teacher educators, to compare Research Interestof male
and female novice teacher educators, to compare Research Interestof rural
and urban novice teacher educators, to compare Research Interestof novice
teacher educatorsfrom science and non science faculty and to compare
Research Interestof novice teacher educators from Marathi and English

Shaikh Ejaz Ahmed Abdul Quddus

Blending ICT in Teacher Education

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 The ICT revolution has influenced almost every aspect of human
being including education. Teacher need to move with the times. For this
the training of teacher in ICT skills is must. The various schemes and
programmes have been launched both at government and nongovernment
levels to develop ICT skills in teacher. Various Universities have designed
specific courses for teacher education through ICT. ICT is a powerful and
effective means for education.



-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0


Priyanka Y. Valhe & Geeta Shinde

Alternative Education: Home Schooling

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Under its “SarvaShikshaAbhiyan (SSA) policy”, the Government of India, Ministry of Human
Resource Development (MHRD) has been endeavoring to provide Basic Education to all
children, youth and adults in the country. There has been a lot of educational research and
experimentation just to provide best of the education to the children throughout the world in
second half of the twentieth century.The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) has
launched the Open Basic Education (OBE) Programme, as an alternative educational
programme, equivalent to the Elementary Education Programme of the formal education
system.The OBE Programme explores and makes use of the potentialities of Distance Education
Mode (DEM) for reaching the unreached. The Foundation Course of NIOS has been subsumed
into the Open Basic Education (OBE) Programme. OBE Programme provides an elementary
education at three levels, for school drop-outs and neo-literates, out of school learners (e.g.homeschoolers)
through Accredited Agencies. There are many new policies and practices are being
practiced to overcome the present problems. But still there are many questions are remaining
unanswered and thus giving new approaches to the educational research. Thus to overcome the
problems related to three areas - Dropout prevention, special education and At-risk youth the
alternative methods to traditional education system aroused. The alternative education could be
given within or outside the Public School System. In Modern time the alternative education is
considered to be the nontraditional education system which includes charter schools, alternative
schools, independent schools, and home-based learning which often emphasize the value of
small class size, close relationships between students and teachers, and a sense of community.

Hasina Shaikh

Quality concerns of teacher training through distance mode

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 There are two modes of Teacher Training that are organized for preparing
teachers. One of them is the conventional teacher education and the other is
the distance education program. Distance education or distance teaching has
emerged as a very useful mode of facilitating education to learners in every
field since its conception. It had begun in a very humble way as
correspondence education in traditional institutions and used only print as
medium of instruction but very soon evolved into independent, autonomous
organisations as Open Universities offering open education through
multimedia instruction. For teacher education too it has evolved into an
alternative and almost parallel means of education today. Today a professional
degree in education for a teacher has become mandatory and due to the lack of
enough trained teachers schools and colleges are compelled to recruit
untrained graduates. Thus in an attempt to find solution to many such
questions we have no second opinion today that distance education is the need
of the hour. The question however arises that looking at the nature of contact
sessions in a distance mode how do we ensure quality of the teachers who get
their degree through the distance mode until and unless they are selfmotivated.
Key words: Distance Education, Teacher Training

Hedyeh Nasser Ranjbar & Megha Uplane

Effect of Video and Computer Games on Behavioral Disorder of Adolescent

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Education system continues to face stern challenges due to swiftly
technologies changes and consequences of that. Beside growing computer
and information technology in world some new pattern of activities in
recent decades grown up such as video and computer games that effect of
them on children and adolescents users become new educators and
parents source of concern. They are interactive games where user has to
practice more and more in order to be the best and if the game has a
negative content will effect on children’ behavior as a result of potential
acting reciprocally .Main goal of this study is to identify adolescents’
abnormal behavior due to using computer and video games. And in
additional categorized the participants’ favorite video and computer games
according to contents. Five hundred and seventy 14 to 16-year-old boys
from four schools participated. result have shown statistically reliable
difference between the mean number of higher (M: 1.44 ,SD : .97 ) and
lesser ( M: 1.09 , SD: 1.02 ) than mean time user of video and
computer game in hostility Dimension , t ( 570) : 4.168 , p: .01 , α :.05

Radhika Inamdar & Rajashree Rathod

Learning Experiences in School Based Subject

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Learning is continuous & lifelong process. To modify or to change or to innovate the behavior,
the learning experiences are essential. The goal of education is all round development of the
child .To achieve this goal; learning is most important process. Learning leads to positive change
in behavior. Learning occurs when child has an experience. The better understanding, acquiring
knowledge, abilities, skills & attitude are essential things in the process of learning. In traditional
school environment, majority teachers give factual information about every subject. Only
imparting such information does not lead to understanding of particular topic in any subject.
Learning experiences can be classified as direct & indirect experiences. Direct experiences refer
to learning activity, which involves firsthand experience, while indirect experience doesn’t
include firsthand experience. In practical learning situations, there is always a combination of
both the experiences.

S.G.Isave & K.N.Bhise

Need of Expansion and Specialization of Teacher Education in India

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 The conceptual paper discusses about the importance of teacher training
from KG to PG. Initially paper focuses on current status of teacher education in India.
It also suggests nature of courses of teacher education in various disciplines. Need of
teacher education programme in various disciplines has been explained in the paper.
The paper discusses about advantages and challenges of the implementation of
teacher education programmes. Main intension of the paper is to make the
sensitization of development and implementation of teacher education programme for
all levels i.e. Extension and developing discipline wise different programmes i.e.
Keywords – teacher education, training, teaching, primary education, secondary
education, technical education, medical education, education in India, NET/SET exam,
professional development, methods of teaching, faculties of education, degree
education, PG, KG

Jyoti Pandey

Emotional Intelligence and Teacher Education

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 The Emotional skills assessment process and emotional learning system provide
an assessment and learning process to help teachers develop a plan of action to
learn and apply emotional intelligence skills. Teachers who intentionally develop
emotional skills and model emotionally intelligent behavior on a daily basis
experience more success and satisfaction in their professional career and life.
Emotionally intelligent teachers are more resilient and proactive in responding to
stressors and less likely to react to stress. Teachers who model emotional
intelligence are characterized by: intentional reflective (not reactive) behavior,
more flexible (not resistant to change), assertive communication (not aggressive
or passive), more optimistic and hopeful (not pessimistic and negative), and relies
on skills and positive habits (not reactive habits) and such transformation in
teacher’s personality is possible only through teacher education programs and
Key Words: Emotional Intelligence, Teacher Education

Jyoti H. Pawade & Shobhana L. Dube

Teaching Science with Project Method:Problems & Remedies

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Scientific temperament canbe inculcated in children from a very early stage, if they
are taught science subject in an innovative and creative way. Studies have proved that
the best method to learn science is project method (PM). In PMthe teacher has to
direct the students to solve a practical problems which is a challenging task. In this
paper “ The problems faced by high school teacher’s while teaching Science subject
using project method” are discussed . The paper alsosuggest some remedies over

Kalpana Chavan, Sanjeev Sonawane & Nisha Valvi

A Journey from Behaviour to Attitude towards Inclusive Education

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 University of Pune changes B.Ed curriculum and added some topics in educational
psychology related to inclusive education. Topics are related to concept of integration
education and inclusive education and what is the psychology of special child. As a
teacher educator we have curiosity to know the pre-service teacher’s attitude and
should started the process from behaviour to attitude towards inclusive education?
So this study was focusing on pre-service teacher’s attitude towards inclusive
education. And to confirm a journey from behaviour to attitude towards inclusive
education. For this we selected sample from M.Ed. students who had completed
his/her B.Ed. Training under University of Pune. Sampling method was Purposive
sampling method and the nature of sample was heterogeneous because sample from 2
sexes group i.e. male and female. And some students had teaching experience and
some didn’t have any experience.

Kalpana Chavan, Sanjeev Sonawane & Nisha Valvi

Developing Entrepreneurship Teaching Approach Using “Picture” Games for Educational Psychology in B.Ed Classroom

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Can we use entrepreneurship teaching approach for B.Ed. classroom? If
so, should we use for educational Psychology? We have this curiosity in
mind so we can develop entrepreneurship teaching approach using
“Picture” games for Educational Psychology in B.Ed classroom.
Entrepreneurship education is simply a functional education and
LEARNING BY DOING. In Entrepreneurship education for Educational
Psychology it is hands-on activities which involve active participation of
the learners in the learning process. In this paper attempt would be made
to describe how picture game, as resource in Educational Psychology can
be used in teaching.
Key Words: Entrepreneurship, Teaching Approach, Educational

Bhalerao Rekha P. & Kasture Padmaja B.

Globalization and Teacher Education

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Globalization is a process of integrating the nation states by removing
or minimizing the restrictions on the movement of material resources,
financial resources, labor, technology and ideas. An important
component of globalization in relation to education is the need for
producing higher quality manpower that can successfully face the
competition in the world. In this age of globalization we need to make
the system of teacher education more innovative and futuristic in order
to respond to the changing demands of the society. To maintain the
standards and to update the quality of teacher education we require
commitment and training of people concerned. The article is focused
towards challenges in teacher education. This paper informs about
views of teacher educators regarding challenges in teacher education in
the context of globalization. For this purpose the researchers conducted
survey in teacher education institute. The summary of the views of
teacher educators shows that quality of teacher education is depends on
quality of teaching practice, new information technology and Elearning
in the age of globalization. Teacher’s quality, knowledge of
technology, curriculum are the important challenges faced by teacher
education in the context of globalization.
Key words: Teacher education, Globalization, Challenges in teacher

Sandhya Milind Khedekar

ICT in education: The role of the Teacher Training.

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Role of teacher training in the process of educational innovation and the implementation
of ICT is very important. The teacher training institutes are providing the teachers of the
future and teachers are the key figures in arranging learning processes. Researcher
gathered additional information on the role of the teacher by visiting schools where ICT
is already being used ‘extensively’. Information on organizational level was gathered and
interviews were conducted with teachers. These interviews were aimed at the teacher’s
tasks, roles and required competences to fulfill these tasks and roles properly. In addition,
literature on job profiles of teachers and implementation literature was studied. The
research shows that the implementation of ICT cannot be realized by blueprints. Schools
and teachers should learn and should be able to design their own educational situation,
possibly choosing from the varied potential ICT has to offer.

Sarika Patel, PragnyaKorde & Mahesh Patel

A Study of Professional Attitude of Higher Secondary Teachers in UT of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Teaching is a profession, which provides highly specialized intellectual services. A
teacher’s effectiveness is determined by his/her mental health, knowledge of subject
matter, personality, social and professional adjustment and most importantly his/her
attitude. Teacher’s professional attitude may be considered the most important
factor, which may predict the success in that profession. The present study is based
on the higher secondary teachers. Their professional attitude and competencies are
known to have greater impact on their style of teaching and classroom
performance.The study was conducted through descriptive type of research. In order
to carry out dense research activity, survey method was applied by the researcher.
The population included all the higher secondary teachers of UT – Dadra and Nagar
Haveli, wherein sample was selected through stratified random sampling technique.
The stratification was done on the basis of different streams at higher secondary
level namely Arts, Commerce and Science. Tools used for the study were
questionnaire, opinionnaire and interview schedule. The data was analyzed with the
help of statistical techniques namely Chi-test, T-test and Percentile. It was found that
the overall scenario regarding professional attitude in higher secondary teachers of
UT- Dadra Nagar Haveli is satisfactory. The degree of job satisfaction among higher
secondary teachers is reasonably strong, which can be enhanced by minimizing the
drawbacks related to work load and autonomy provided by the authorities

Kothawade Pravin Laxman

Teacher Education through Distance Mode

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 After independence during 1950s large number of schools were to be established and
more teacher need to be appointed every year and regular teacher training institutions was
not adequate but large number of untrained teachers were working in school Hence the
need for training through correspondence –Cum – Contact programme arose during
1960s . The experiment of summer – school – cum correspondence course for awarding
B.Ed degree give rise to a new type of mass scale correspondence cum contact course for
B..Ed degree which was launched by several universities. Correspondence /Distance
Education programme effectively cover theoretical aspect of teacher education. NCTE
compendium entitled “Curriculum Framework for Quality Teacher Education has aptly
stated that DE is emerging as an alternative to the formal Education system
Over a few decades the demand for admission to B.Ed degree programmes has
considerably increased partly because of the increasing demands as a result of this privet
teacher education colleges has sprung up so problems of admissions to distance
education mode program is increasing year to year and another problems in DE mode
are become challenges for teacher education through distance mode.

Madhuri Isave

Study the Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation Scheme at secondary school

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 School education is a basic education that everybody should educate in the
country. This expectation realized in ‘Education for All’ scheme of education.
The time of our independence many commission and committees emphasised
upon the free and compulsory education. National Policy of Education laid so
much importance on school education. Every student at the school level laying
down minimum levels of learning and emphasised upon Continuous
Comprehensive evaluation scheme at school level.

Manishkumar N. Varma

Innovations in Teacher Education: An Integration of Modern Techniques with Traditional ones

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 The challenges faced by teacher education institutions raise pertinent questions
for both the school systems and the governments. On one hand , the school system
has to grapple with the problems of teacher quality and the increasing student and
societal expectations, Governments on the other hand are struggling to provide the
teacher education system an environment that fosters innovation and match the
requirements of the school sector. This calls for a breakthrough and innovative
thinking on the part of all the stakeholders.
This paper is an attempt to integrate the modern techniques with the traditional
one to enhance the quality of teacher and in turn teacher education.
Keywords: Teacher education, Innovation, Modern Techniques, Quality.

Minal Thakur

Classrooms without Walls and Remote Teachers

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Today the world is experiencing an unprecedented change,
developments in science and technology, media, internationalization
of education and the ever expanding competitive environments are
revolutionizing the educational scenario. The new challenge before
the country at the beginning of the 21st century is not only to become a
developed society and have a vibrant economy run by talent and
achievement, but to improve and enhance the qualities of a teacher
who proves to be an indirect source for the economic developments. It
is therefore in this competitive world market that Indian Education
system in general and Teacher Education in particular should play a
new role to provide the nation and the world at large with skilled
human power (competent teachers at all levels).

Neeru Sharma & MonaVij

Teacher Education Scenario in Punjab: A Status Study

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Increasingly demanding and complex market forces require revitalized teacher education
systems. It is a pertinent expectation that the teacher education institutions exhibit vibrancy
adequate for responding to theemerging paradigms of school education and the teacher roles
thereof. It is thus necessary that quality concern is explicit in every aspect of teacher
education programmes. But today all the universities want to privatise teacher education
programme without any quality control. As of today teacher training is one such professional
qualification quality, relevance and efficiency of which is under severe criticism. Although
the bodies like NCTE and NAAC are constantly striving not to dilute the standards of teacher
education programme, still the mushrooming growth of the teacher training colleges raise
eyebrows regarding the quality of the profession.The framework for this study includes study
and comparison of quality concerns for teacher education institutions in the light of NCTE
norms. Findings indicate the declining standards and quality in teacher education institutions.

Yashpal D. Netragaonkar

Computer Assisted Instruction and Constructivism

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Devoted paper deals with the comparisons of Computer Assisted Instruction
learning practices programme and an epistemology of Constructivism. No doubt
technology has made drastic changes in each and every aspects of Human life even
though education sector is not excluded from it. The paper also explores concept of
Constructivism and CAI "Constructivism is not a theory about teaching…it is a theory
about knowledge and learning… the theory defines knowledge as temporary,
developmental, socially and culturally mediated, and thus, nonobjective." The paper
also focuses the light on characteristics, assumptions, and principals of Constructivism
and CAI. CAI is the use of a computer as a medium of Instruction for Tutorial, drill and
practice, simulation or games, CAI is used for both initial and remedial training and
typically does not require that a computer be connected to a network or provide links to
learning resources outsides of the course.
The Comparison of CAI and Constructivism is also incorporated very
systematically at the end section of this paper.
Key Words: Computer Assisted Instruction, Constructivism

Julius MaiyoKiprop & NidhiVerma.

Teacher Education and Globalization: Implications and Concerns in the 21st Century.

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Education is a key to civilization and enlightenment and a source of wealth and
power. It is the cornerstone of the growth and development of any country’s
social economic and political institutions. Globalization is a qualitatively new
phenomenon of multi-dimensional nature posing a variety of complex trends in
the economic, social and cultural fabrics of all societies. No country can live in
isolation without seeking impact of global trends and a change in all field of life.
Teacher education plays a pivotal role in this era of globalization in shaping and
reshaping the society and determining the quality of life in the community and the
nation. Like all other professions, globalization is also affecting teacher
education. This paper focuses critically at the globalization and teacher
education: implications and concerns in the twenty first century. It unearths the
state and extent of the effect of globalization in education and finally it suggest
shifts to be explored in teacher education.
Key words: Teacher education, globalization, implication

Patil Padmashree S. & Megha Uplane

Experiences of primary school teachers & challenges before teacher education

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 As an integral part of educational system, teacher education in India has to be responsive to socio-cultural ethos and national development. It does not consist of institution-based activities only. Its scope has broadened and its objectives have become more focused during the last thirty years. Therefore, it is expected to engage itself in all endeavors of social and national reconstruction and regeneration, address itself to the social and educational problems, fulfill the expectations of the people, accelerate the process of nation building and assist in the realization of constitutional goals. It is true that considerable achievements have been made in all these directions. Teacher education cannot remain indifferent to its context and major concerns. In this experiment the researcher found the result like this, Children learn best by action followed by reflection and feedback. In teaching five A are important that is 1) Aim- Clear learning objective before starting any lesson by clear about what outcomes we want to see for the students 2) Activity- Experimental , start the lesson with the activity where children have their own experiences and try out 3) Analysis—Questioning & Concept Formation , introduced the concept to the students formally through questions and discussions. 4) Apply – Real life problem Solving , self study with reflective questions and challenging problems. 5) Assess- Measurement & Feed Back.

N. N. Pandey & Pratibha Sagar

Developing Positive Attitude towards Teaching Profession

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Teaching is the noblest among all professions. Teachers help in shaping and reshaping the society and determine the quality of life in the community and the nation. So the teacher quality is crucial issue for the teacher education. To improve the quality of teacher education, competent and committed teacher educators are given due place for pious task of preparing future teachers. There has been rapid growth of education at all level which has resulted into increasing number of teachers as well as more schools. As a result, quality of education was sacrificed for the sake of quantity in education and the teacher education facilities could not be increased in the proportion to the number of teachers needed for the increase in enrolment at school level. As a result, untrained candidates with low academic qualifications were appointed as teachers. The deteriorating condition of teacher education is due to the lack of commitment and positive attitude towards teaching profession. Need of the hour is to have a five year professional course of teacher education after +2 stage and establishment of a national University of Teacher Education.
Key Words: - Positive Attitude, Teaching Profession

Pratibha Subhashachandra Patankar & Megha Sahebrao Jadhav

Enhancing Learning through Stress-Free Education for Mathematics

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0


Pratibha S.Patankar

Constructivist approach for Practice Teaching in Teacher Education Programme

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Today’s buzzword in the field of Education is constructivism. It is relatively a
new paradigm which takes into account the subjective, contextual and plurastic nature of
knowledge. It focuses on the learner’s active participation in the process of construction
of knowledge who search meaning by understanding problem in holistic framework.
Accordingly National curriculum framework (2005) and (2010) emphasized on
constructivism and recommends that curriculum should help to become constructor of
knowledge and emphasizes active role of teacher. As corollary, teacher preparation
should also to be viewed in the context of constructivism and revitalized accordingly.
As constructivist approach stress on ‘learning process’ critical feature in
practicing teaching programme in Teacher Education should be how knowledge is
acquired by the learner in the cognitive and social context.
The practice teaching programme is one of the major components of practicum course
where the constructivist pedagogy can be incorporated.
The present paper focus on how constructivist pedagogy can be brought in
planning of lesson during practice teaching.

Mushtaq Ahmed I. Patel & Mohasina Anjum A. Ansari

Training of Teachers through Distance Mode – The Experiences and Challenges of Training Urdu Medium Teachers

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Teacher training is an important professional programme. The Urdu medium teachers training is required to be highlighted in present scenario. The role of Maulana Azad National Urdu University (MANUU) in training teachers through pre-service and in-service programmes is praise worthy. The distance mode programme of MANUU is found very successful. In this article the authors looks into important components of B.Ed. Distance Mode programme, its functioning and challenges of teacher training in distance mode programmes in Urdu. Despite of all challenges it is found that the teacher education programme becomes largely successful in Urdu Medium.
Key Words: Teacher Education, Distance Mode

Pornima Kadam & Chaskar Smita

Study of effectiveness of ICT training programme for primary teachers

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 In this age where students are given right to take education it is our duty to provide quality education from primary level. Such quality education can only possible when teachers are comforted from fatigue manual work of records. Teachers have to waste their time and energy to maintain records so they get less time and energy for teaching. If time and energy is saved, it can be utilized for quality enhancement of teaching. This can be possible with the help of ICT training. In this research paper researchers have tried to study effectiveness of ICT training programme for primary teachers. Methodology for this research is experimental method with single group pretest post test design. Sampling method was non probability purposive sampling. Quantitative data was collected through achievement test and qualitative data was collected through observations and feedbacks. Quantitative analysis was done through graph and qualitative data was analyzed using quantifications.
Keywords: ICT program-primary teachers

Kanchan V. Joshi & Pritesh R. Wadhe

Effectiveness of Blended ICT in teaching Science Method to B. Ed. Students

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 In recent years, ICT has paved the way for accelerating the paradigrm shift through providing more flexible way of learning. Blended Learning is an educational forma tion that integrates online learning techiques with traditional teaching methods. This study was undertaknen to study effectiveness of blended ICT approach over the con ventional method in teaching science method to B.Ed. students. The reserach method used in this study was an experimental method with parallel group design. Pretest- posttest equivalent group design was followed for this study. The result showed that the students learning through blended ICT are found to be better than students
learning through traditional method of teaching.
Keywords :- Blended learning, ICT, Online learning.

Priya Singh

Curriculum Design and Transaction in Teacher Education: Present and Future

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Enlightened, emancipated and empowered teachers lead communities and nations in their march towards better and higher quality of life. Teachers are the torch bearers in creating social cohesion, national integration and a learning society. They not only disseminate knowledge but also create and generate new knowledge. They are responsible for acculturating role of education. No nation can even marginally slacken its efforts in giving necessary professional inputs to its teachers and along with that due status to their stature and profession. Kothari Commission (1964-66) stated, “The essence of programme of teacher education is quality and in its absence, teacher education becomes not only a financial waste but a source of overall deterioration in educational standards”. Accepting that the existing teacher education programme are largely divorced from the realities of school, it is recommended that there should be reorientation of subject knowledge, vitalization of professional studies and to root the entire curriculum in Indian condition; development of special courses and programme, revision and improvement of curriculum in the light of globalization and need of the nation.
Key Words: Curriculum Design, Transaction, Teacher Education

Pushpa A. Patil

A study of Social Networking Sites Awareness Program

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Education is a continuous, complex, dynamic and life long process. Now -a- days Social Networking sites occupy a prominent place in the life of a youth. A social networking site allows users to create a profile that introduces them to other members of the site. Profiles usually contain information about hobbies, photos, and short blog-like posts. In this context, every teacher should be aware of Social Networking sites. So the investigator decided to study on the awareness of social networking sites. The main objective of this study is ‘To investigate awareness of social networking among B.A. B.Ed. students in the age group of 18-20 years. For this the investigator plans to conduct pretest and posttest on the research group. The investigator followed “Experimental” method and developed a “Social Networking Sites Awareness Programme” (SNSAP) for First year B.A. B. Ed students of H.G.M. Azam college of Education. The present study shows that the B.A. B.Ed. trainees have adequate awareness on Social Networking sites.
Key words: Social Networks site, Student teachers

Rajiv K. Pancham & Milind S. Gawande

Enhancing Learning and Teacher Education through ICT in Changing Scenario

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Quality in education is rapidly evolving over time. Quality education is informed by the past; it is relevant to the present context and prepares the individuals for the future to lead a balanced life. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a major factor in shaping the new global economy and producing rapid changes in society. Within the past decade, the new ICT tools have fundamentally changed the way people communicate and do business. They have produced significant transformations in various fields of transaction. They also have the potential to transform the nature of education, where and how learning takes place and the roles of students and teachers in the learning process. For education to reap the full benefits of ICTs in learning, it is essential that pre-service and in-service teachers have basic ICT skills and competencies. Teacher education institutions and programmes must provide the leadership for pre-service and in-service teachers and model the new pedagogies and tools for learning. They must also provide leadership and accountability in determining how the new technologies can best be used in the context of the culture, needs, and economic conditions within the country. Teacher education institutions also need to develop strategies and plans to enhance the teaching-learning process within teacher education programmes and to assure that all future teachers are well prepared to use the new tools for learning.

Rajeev Ghode

ICT and Instructional Multimedia Content for conducting teachers training programs

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 In the globalize world, there is no alternative for the quality. It applies to education sector as well, especially in higher education. Because of rapid development and changes in Indian Education System, almost all teachers have to work in a competitive and challenging environment, where every teacher need to be updated with its own subjects as well as he or she need to acquire additional skills which will enforce their academic profile. To face the competitive environment at both work and Institutions, the teachers should have adequate Knowledge, Skills and desired Abilities to perform.
To develop all teachers to face these global challenges, it is the major responsibility on Educational Institutions and Universities to provide quality education to their teachers. The major problem is the time and space for organizing special training programs for teachers as most of the teachers are engaged in various administrative and academic responsibilities of the institutions and universities.
The main aim of this research paper is to encourage all the professors to use ICT and rich multimedia content developed with proper instructional approaches to conduct teachers training programs to improve overall teaching learning process. This will save a lot of time of training Such engaging and motivating training sessions will help teachers to understand and acquire new skills.
Keywords – Instructional, multimedia, educational, content, Teachers training, ICT

M. Rajendra Nath Babu

A Study on Usage of Information and Communication Technology among P.G. Students in S. V. University in relation to certain sociological variables

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Information and communication technologies have transformed our world in many ways; yet, informal scholarly scientific communication forms a socio-technical interaction network in which communication is influenced by technology but defined by the social structures of scientists and their organizations. The main objective of the present study is to find out the usage of Information and Communication Technology among P.G. Students in S.V.Univrsity in relation to certain sociological variables. Sample comprised of 300 P.G. students in S.V.U. The usage of ICT among PG students questionnaire by Dr.S.Nirmal Devi and R.P.K.Kaliammal was used for the present study. Chi-square test was used for analysis of the data.
Key Words: ICT, Sociological Variable.

Rajeshree Rathod

Challenges and future of Teacher Education

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0


Bhagwat Bhad & Rashmi Joshi

Globalization and Teacher Education

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 India has the second largest system of schooling in the world. About five million
school teachers are working in the country at different levels of schooling. In India,
not only in the school system but also in the social system as a Catalyst of change and
development throughout the present system of teacher education in our country, one
can say without any fear of contradiction that it is in deep crisis. It is sad that in spite
of appointing several commissions and committees by the government we have failed
to create teacher education programmes tailor made to meet the needs of the present
day society in India. At present we are confronted with challenges of knowledge
explosion, revolutionary, changes in information and communication technology,
value crisis, social religious conflicts and tension etc. unless the future teachers are
made sensitive to all these challenges. It is difficult for anyone to survive as a teacher
and play the role expected of him. The phenomenon of globalization is considered as
the most wide spread trend our century has ever witnessed. So in this century teacher
education faced it of challenges in the context of Globalization.
Keyword- Globalization, Teacher Education

Sandhya Digambar Shinde

Google technology for teachers

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0 is a most popular search engine which people prefer to choose whenever they want to search something on internet. is ranked #1 in the world according to the three-month Alexa traffic rankings, and the site has been online for more than fourteen years8. Google developed several services in recent years which are more valuable for searching information quickly. Teacher is a most important part in learning process. Consequently, teachers must know the use of technology for inclusion into learning process. Hence, in this paper, the author attempts to present an overview of some of the important services of Google and their application for teachers.
Key Words: Google, search engine, teacher, etc.

Sangita Nandkumar Shirode.

Innovation in the Teaching of Teacher Educators

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 According to need of era, for improving the quality of school education it is necessary to bring changes in teaching learning field. To bring such changes in school- teaching first it is necessary to bring such changes in teacher education. It is the responsibility of teacher education to introduce these techniques and make familiar student teachers about new ways of teaching which assist school students for learning. For introducing new ways of teaching, teacher educators are the role models, Teacher educators should adopt these strategies in their teaching. If teacher-educators will adopt these strategies in their teaching surely student teachers will understand that how to apply, how to use and how to administer such techniques in the class.
To find how many teacher educators adopt such techniques, bring innovation in their teaching researcher undergone survey study and came to conclusion that most of the teacher educators are applying only lecture method for transaction of content. Need to bring innovation in teaching of teacher educators.
Key Words: Teaching, Teacher Educator, Teacher Education.

Rupali Uttam Sankpal & Balaji Sitaram Raut

Challenges of Technology and E-Learning Encounter by Teacher Educators -A Study

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 It is clear that teacher educators are encounter with number of technological and e-learning challenges. It seems that most of the teacher educators does not have conceptual clarification about e-learning as well as they don’t have proficiency over ICT skills. However if all the teacher educators wants the qualitative development of the field then certain changes should be adopted. After all nations development is depend upon teachers’ quality. Hence following suggestions are given to the teacher education institutes ICT teacher training institutes and to the teacher educators:
Key Words: Technology, E-learning, Teacher Educators

Shaheen Altaf Shaikh & Smita Phatak

A Study of Teacher Educator Practices in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Based Curriculum Transaction.

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 The challenge is to use ICT in teaching learning judiciously and effectively and if this is to happen then the change has to begin from the roots of education i.e., the teacher education system. The present research attempts to find out how the teacher educators are using ICT in their classrooms. The objectives were to analyze the ICT based curriculum transaction practices by teacher educators, to identify lacunae in ICT based curriculum transaction practices by teacher educators and to suggest improvements to the ICT based curriculum transaction practices by teacher educators. The results show that there is no uniformity or specific format or design or model which is used for curriculum transaction of an ICT based session. No criteria are used by teacher educators for selection of ICT tool for the ICT based session. Teacher educators do not consider the benefits of using specific ICT resources to the teaching learning process. Teacher educators do not use interactive ICT tools. Teacher educators do not use group work/ pair work during an ICT based session. Teacher educators use only questions as assessment tools.
Key Words:- Teacher Educator, ICT, Curriculum Transtion

S. D. Ghodke & V. D. Ghodke

Use of Regional Languages Along With English In Field Of Teaching

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 In present paper we are trying to probe problem of communication between teacher and student & understanding subject because of English. Based on our survey at B.Sc. level, we examined the problem and are tying to give some simple and practical solutions.
Key Words: Regional Languages, English Teaching

Smriti Nagi

Education through Distance Mode

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Education for the new millennium needs to enhance an individual’s ability to assimilate, evaluate and apply the available information. Education has dual function of transmitting to the new generation heritage of the past with its accumulated wisdom, and preparing it for the present and the future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. The entire gamut of teacher education revolves round linking of academic learning to life experiences. There are innumerable modes which made the teaching learning process(TLP) easier and interesting. The need of the country in twenty first century is to become a developed society by the year 2020, which is not only confined to a thriving knowledge, but also a new society where justice and human values prevail to be created.
Distance Education has emerged as a new mode of teaching which is known as distance teaching. Communication is the most important factor in distance mode. Teacher education through distance mode requires content, presentation and communication awareness and the practice for teaching.
Distance learning lends itself to a variety of interpretations which empowers it as a concept”. Distance Education" is an umbrella term which indicates the tangible distance between the learner and the teacher where the process of teaching and learning is not confined to the four walls of the classroom any more. With its horizontal mobility, Distance Education transcends the barriers of time, space, creed, community and religion, thus breaking the myth of elitism in conventional teacher education.
Any professional training in distance mode should lay emphasis on progressive stages towards greater professionalism which should enable it to be seen both as a career and a discipline .Providing fulfledged professional training in distance mode is a positive and necessary step in this direction.
Distance mode may be defined as the family of instructional methods in which the teaching behaviours are executed apart from the learning behaviours,including those that in a contiguous situation would lie performed in the learners’ presence, so that communication between the teacher and the learner must be facilitated by print, electronic, mechanical or other devices.The term “Distance Education”has been borrowed from the “European terms Fernunterricht” “Tele- ensignment” and “education a distancia ‘’ to describe all the teaching –learning arrangements in which the learner and teacher are normally separated by space and /or by time.
Key Words: Education, Distance Mode

Chitra Sohani

Cooperative learning approach to Science Education: An innovative practice

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 With increasing awareness about merits of cooperative learning, National curriculum framework of India 2005 advocates use of cooperative learning in formal academic learning. Teacher education should be more sensitive to the emerging demands and should develop appropriate competencies in the student teachers. Considering this it was thought appropriate to implement cooperative learning approach in curriculum transaction of Science education and study its effect on student teachers’ perception about cooperative learning and teaching performance by using qualitative data and triangulation. Researcher found that student teachers incorporated various activities using cooperative approach in their lesson plans due to the approach applied in curriculum transaction. Student teachers also had clear perception about the techniques to be used for cooperative learning but they could not understand aspect of positive interdependence. It was concluded that cooperative learning approach can be successfully implemented in curriculum transaction of teacher education.
Key Words: Co-operative Learning and Science Education

Ms. Soo Hee Cho & Sanjeev Sonawane

MBME (Mind-Body Management Education) program – Educational Tool for Self Development

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 This study of MBME (Mind-Body Management Education) program accepts a common sense approach that “self-development” is a natural part of what we can call “maturity”. Clearly, self development involves both the mind and body of the individual, and this thesis follows the original Eastern understanding, and current Western scientific understanding, of the unity of the mind and body. We are all aware of how the mind affects the body. But less well appreciated, changes in the body will affect the mind. The MBME is designed to provide participants with a physical movement program which includes the following qualities: flexibility, awareness, balance, breathing, beauty and grace. The hypothesis for this research project is that if an individual can learn to develop these qualities in their bodies, this will help them develop the same changes in their minds and their behavior.
Key Words: Mind, Body, Management, Education, Self-development

Rashmi joshi & Vaibhav jadhav

A study of the awareness of value education in female student teacher

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Value education has acquired a new significance in the present system of
education and the word education includes itself the concept of value
education, with the need of time. Bachelor of the education course is the
medium of implementing the values by various activities but the soul of this
course, the student teacher has really the awareness of this value education?
And the second what’s the role of teacher educators in implementing the
application of values by the student teacher? And these two things are the
point of the view. So, that the researcher try to find out the awareness of value
education of student teacher on the basis of social and moral accountability
about this society.
Keywords: Value Education, female student teacher.

Sunanda Roy & Lalita Vartak

Looking at a Research Report through De Bono’s Six Frames of Thinking about Information

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Research plays a very important role in Teacher Education, since it helps improve the quality of education and molding the future generation. The research report which is a vital part of research makes the readers understand the researcher’s thinking process. One is tempted to include all the information one gets in a research report. Edward de Bono, the father of lateral thinking, has provided ‘Six Frames’ for thinking about and extracting more value from information. This conceptual paper focuses on how one can use the six frames while looking at a research report. These frames can help guide researchers to think about the information they get while writing their research reports and evaluating them. This can improve the quality of research in Teacher Education. Thus these frames help us to focus our attention towards specific parts of the information, assisting us in clearly perceiving the information and guiding our thinking.
Key Words: Research report, teacher education, six frames of thinking about information.

Vishwasrao Sharad Hari

Globalization and Teacher Education

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 Globalization refers to the increasingly global relationships of culture, people and economic activity. The term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages, and culture. The wealth of nation is Knowledge - based system than land, building and money. Globalisation of education must be made to work for people. For that purpose we must take into account the following six factors, Ethics, Equity, Inclusion, Human security, Sustainability and Development. Education is the fundamental necessity for development. It can be exported and imported through various mechanisms. Therefore globalisation of education must care of different things. In globalisation important factor is knowledge. Educational system is driving force of globalisation. Teacher is an important factor in educational system. Through education and with the help of teacher any change can be made. In the world of globalization we are at the top in the world with the help of proper education and teacher education.
Key Words: Globalisation and Teacher Education

Madhuri Isave & Suvarna Ware

Challenges and Experiences in Teacher Education Program

-,2012, Vol - /, Page - 0/0

 The present paper is focussed on today’s challenges faced in teacher education
program. Considering the present situation of TE, its curriculum, the teacher
educator, teacher trainees, administrator, and management of particular
institution faced problems of admission process. There is minimisation of the
number of students in teacher education institutions. Intake capacity of
students in institution is not fulfilled. It creates overburden and job insecurity
for the members who are working in the respective institution. Increase the
age limit for the job i.e. 60 to62- 65 years by rule. Because of this rule job
opportunity for the new comers is decreased. It also affect the mentality of the
person who taking the benefit of this rules that person is not taking so much
interest in the academic work, lack of professional involvement in the
institution. The majority of teacher trainees look at teacher education program
as a passport to join in school means to become teacher. Therefore most of
them de-motivated to move toward this profession. Even in non-aided colleges
of education who don’t pay as per pay scale stipulated by the government.
Another reason is unavailability of NET/ SET qualified students. This is the
ground reality due to which this profession don’t attract better personals who
become better teacher educator , better administration. The present paper
highlighted the challenges and experiences in teacher education program.

  1. International Association for Teaching and Learning